Yahoo Assigns 2648 Patents to Mystery Excalibur IP, LLC Group


Google is possibly most well known for the patenting of an algorithm that sorted and ordered search results based upon a metric known as PageRank, named after Google Co-Founder Lawrence Page, while he was a student at Stanford University. Yahoo started off as a Web Directory, which became a Search Engine, and the patent it might be most well known for is one that it purchased from Overture (Originally Goto.com), and successfully sued Google with (winning a settlement out of the litigation) which describes paid search. That patent appears to have been assigned by Yahoo, along with a number of other patents last month.

A couple of weeks ago, an article on Yahoo’s patent portfolio ran, and provided some insights into what value those patents might hold. The article, Yahoo Has a Strong Patent Portfolio, But Reported Valuation is Too High gives us some ideas regarding how much the Search Engine’s patents might be worth (4 Billion?), and what they’ve been doing with them. Has Yahoo sold a good amount of those patents not much less than a week after that article? We don’t know for certain. It’s possible that they may have to one of the remaining bidders for the company: Exclusive: Yahoo’s bidder shortlist points to cash deal -sources.

On April 18th, 2016 an assignment was recorded at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) on a transaction that appears to have been executed on April 18th, 2016 involving the assignment of 2648 patents from Yahoo! Inc. to Excalibur IP, LLC. It’s possible that name is made up to hold the patents temporarily. The address that the assignment indicates is Excalibur’s is “701 FIRST AVENUE SUNNYVALE, CALIFORNIA UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 94089”. A search for that address points to the the headquarters of Yahoo! as we see in the knowledge panel below, so the actual purchaser appears unknown.

Yahoo knowledge panel

The transaction includes a patent that was at the heart of litigation between Yahoo! and Google, after Yahoo! had purchased Overture, which had patented Paid search, and Yahoo! sued Google for adopting a paid search model that was said to be similar. In August of 2004, Yahoo! and Google settled the case between them. In the article Yahoo! and Google Resolve Disputes, we are told about the settlement between the two companies:

“Under the terms of the settlement agreement, Google will take a license to U.S. Patent No. 6,269,361 and several related patents, held by Yahoo!’s wholly-owned subsidiary, Overture, and Yahoo! dismissed its patent lawsuit against Google. The two parties have also resolved a dispute regarding shares issuable to Yahoo! pursuant to a warrant to purchase Google shares in connection with a 2000 services agreement.”

The patent is:

System and Method For Influencing a Position on a Search Result List Generated by a Computer Network Search Engine
Inventors: Thomas A. Soulanille, James B. Gallinatti JR., DARREN J. DAVIS, MATTHEW DERER, JOHANN GARCIA, LARRY GRECO, TOD E. KURT, THOMAS KWONG, JONATHAN C. LEE, KA LUK LEE, PRESTON PFARNER, STEVE SKOVRAN
US Patent 6269361
Filed: May 28, 1999
Granted: Jul 31, 2001

We don’t know what the financial terms of this transaction might be, or whom the ultimate parties may be as well. The USPTO site search tells us that there are 2179 granted Yahoo! patents listed there and there are 3151 pending Yahoo! patent applications. In the assignment, in addition to a number of patents involving paid search, there are also a number that involve web search, semantic search, image search, and a wide range of software applications. Have they been transferred to a new owner already, or are they now being held by a holding company? The patent behind paid search is included in that patent portfolio. We will see who it ends up going to.


Copyright © 2016 SEO by the Sea. This Feed is for personal non-commercial use only. If you are not reading this material in your news aggregator, the site you are looking at may be guilty of copyright infringement. Please contact SEO by the Sea, so we can take appropriate action immediately.
Plugin by Taragana

The post Yahoo Assigns 2648 Patents to Mystery Excalibur IP, LLC Group appeared first on SEO by the Sea.





Source link

Share Button

Google’s Reasonable Surfer Patent Updated


surfer

Systems and methods consistent with the principles of the invention may provide a reasonable surfer model that indicates that when a surfer accesses a document with a set of links, the surfer will follow some of the links with higher probability than others. This reasonable surfer model reflects the fact that not all of the links associated with a document are equally likely to be followed. Examples of unlikely followed links may include “Terms of Service” links, banner advertisements, and links unrelated to the document.

Google’s original PageRank algorithm is based upon what its inventor referred to as the Random Surfer model, where it ranked pages on the Web based upon a probability that a person following links at random on the Web might end up upon a particular page:

The rank of a page can be interpreted as the probability that a surfer will be at the page after following a large number of forward links. The constant α in the formula is interpreted as the probability that the web surfer will jump randomly to any web page instead of following a forward link.

Years later, some search engineers at Google came out with a newer patent based upon something referred to as the Reasonable Surfer model, which looked at different probabilities involving the likelihood that a person might click upon certain links, and that those probabilities could determine how likely it might be that someone might click upon links to specific pages on the web, and end up at one of those pages.

I wrote about this patent in a post from 2010 which I titled, Google’s Reasonable Surfer: How The Value Of A Link May Differ Based Upon Link And Document Features And User Data

Patents do sometimes get updated by the people who originally file them. These updates often take the shape of changes to the claims within the patents.

These changes may reflect a change in the way that the processes described within the patent operate.

It’s the claims section that is changed when one of these continuation patents is filed, because patent examiners from the patent office look at the claims, and compare those to claims from other patents to make sure that the new claims don’t copy other granted patents, and could be said to infringe those patents.

A continuation patent is called that because it “continues” the protection given by the original version of the patent and is given a date of coverage that begins with the original filing date of the original version of the patent.

The continuation patent is:

Ranking documents based on user behavior and/or feature data
Inventors: Jeffrey A. Dean, Corin Anderson, and Alexis Battle
Assigned to: Google
US Patent 9,305,099
Granted April 5, 2016
Filed: January 10, 2012

Abstract

A system generates a model based on feature data relating to different features of a link from a linking document to a linked document and user behavior data relating to navigational actions associated with the link. The system also assigns a rank to a document based on the model.

As I pointed out in my original post about the Reasonable Surfer patent, it changes the amount of PageRank that might flow through a link based upon different features associated with a link. If a link is in the main content area of a page, uses a font and color that might make it stand out, and uses text that may make it something likely that someone might click upon it, then it could pass along a fair amount of PageRank. On the otherhand, if it combines features that make it less likely to be clicked upon, such as being in the footer of a page, in the same color text as the rest of the text on that page, and the same font type, and uses anchor text that doesn’t interest people, it may not pass along a lot of PageRank.

So, how has the Claims for this patent changed, changing the Reasonable surfer model?

I’m seeing it refer to anchor text in those claims more frequently, and how much weight might be passed along based upon the probability that people might click upon a link. Here is some language that stands out to me, from the first new claim in the patent:

… a rank for a particular document, generating the rank including: determining particular feature data associated with a link to the particular document, the particular feature data identifying one or more attributes of the link, determining a weight indicating a probability of the link being selected, the weight being determined based on the particular feature data and selection data, the selection data identifying user behavior relating to links to other documents …the weight indicating a higher probability of the link being selected when the particular feature data corresponds to feature data associated with the one or more links than when the particular feature data corresponds to feature data associated with the one or more other links…words in anchor text associated with the links, and a quantity of the words in the anchor text

The claims in the original version of Ranking documents based on user behavior and/or feature data are different, and these newer claims seem to emphasize more that the weight that is passed along by links seems to be based upon the probability that people will click upon a link found upon a page.

It’s no longer a “random” probability, but now seems to be even more “reasonable” than it was even in the first version of the reasonable surfer patent.


Copyright © 2016 SEO by the Sea. This Feed is for personal non-commercial use only. If you are not reading this material in your news aggregator, the site you are looking at may be guilty of copyright infringement. Please contact SEO by the Sea, so we can take appropriate action immediately.
Plugin by Taragana

The post Google’s Reasonable Surfer Patent Updated appeared first on SEO by the Sea.





Source link

Share Button

Satisfaction a Future Ranking Signal in Google Search Results?


Do you search through Google on your phone? How do you know whether or not Google is watching you as you do and keeps on eye on whether or not you like the results you receive during your searches? Could Satisfaction with search results be a ranking signal that Google may use now, or in the future?

A newly published Google patent application describes technology that would modify scoring and ranking of query results using biometric indicators of user satisfaction or negative engagement with a search result. In other words; Google would track how satisfied or unsatisfied someone might be with search results, and using machine learning, build a model based upon that satisfaction, raising or lowering search results for a query. This kind of reaction might be captured using a camera on a searcher’s phone to see their reaction to a search result, as depicted in the following screenshot from the patent:

Google biometric responses

This satisfaction would be based upon Google tracking and measuring biometric parameters of a user obtained after thst search result is presented to the user, to determine whether those may indicate negative engagement by the user with a search result.

For example, someone searches for “Seafood Restaurants,” and the top result is a restaurant they have visited before and didn’t like, causing them to frown, which may be captured on their phone’s camera. That reaction may be seen as a negative signal by the search engine, and could potentially count against that restaurant ranking as highly for that query term. The patent tells us that such a reaction may influence search results for multiple searchers:

The actions include providing a search result to a user; receiving one or more biometric parameters of the user and a satisfaction value; and training a ranking model using the biometric parameters and the satisfaction value. Determining that one or more biometric parameters indicate likely negative engagement by the user with the first search result comprises detecting:

  • Increased body temperature
  • Pupil dilation
  • Eye twitching
  • Facial flushing
  • Decreased blink rate
  • Increased heart rate.

The patent is:

Ranking Query Results Using Biometric Parameters
Inventors: Jason Sanders, Gabriel Taubman
Assignee: Google
US Patent Application 20160103833
Published April 14, 2016
Filed: February 28, 2013

Abstract

Methods, systems, and apparatus, including computer program products, for providing query results using biometric parameters. One of the methods includes providing a search result in response to receiving a search query. If one or more of biometric parameters of a user indicate likely negative engagement by the user with the first search result, an additional search result is obtained and provided in response to the search query.

Take Aways

When I think of how often I get my face right up in my phone’s screen while searching for something, the idea that Google might use the phone’s camera to capture my facial impressions as I’m looking at results doesn’t surprise me. Would Google use such signals to rank search results, or build a model of biometric reactions to search results? It’s an interesting question. Instead of social media likes or dislikes, these rankings would be based upon what would be percieved as actual likes or dislikes.

Could you envision Google using an approach like this one in ranking search results?


Copyright © 2016 SEO by the Sea. This Feed is for personal non-commercial use only. If you are not reading this material in your news aggregator, the site you are looking at may be guilty of copyright infringement. Please contact SEO by the Sea, so we can take appropriate action immediately.
Plugin by Taragana

The post Satisfaction a Future Ranking Signal in Google Search Results? appeared first on SEO by the Sea.





Source link

Share Button

Selecting Entities on Sites and Performing Tasks On Them Through Google


Visitors to a website may want to perform certain actions related to Entities (specific places or people or things) that are displayed to them on the Web.

For example, at a page for a restaurant (an entity), a person viewing the site may want to create a reservation or get driving directions to the restaurant from their current location. Doing those things may require a person to take a number of steps, such as selecting the name of the restaurant and copying it, pasting that information into a search box, and submitting it as a search query, selecting the site from search results, determining if making a reservation is possible on the site, and then providing information necessary to make a reservation; getting driving directions may also require multiple steps.

Using a touch screen device may potentially be even more difficult because the site would possibly then be limited to touch input.

A patent granted to Google this week describes a way to easily identify an entity such as a restaurant on a touch device, and select it online and take some action associated with that entity based upon the context of a site the entity is found upon. Actions such as booking a reservation at a restaurant found on a website, or procuring driving directions to that site, or other actions could be easily selected by the user of a site.

The patent is:

Semantic selection and purpose facilitation
Inventors: Paul Nordstrom, Casey Stuart Whitelaw,
Assignee: Google
US Patent 9,305,108
Granted April 5, 2016
Filed: October 5, 2012

Abstract

Computer-implemented methods for proposing actions to a user to select based on the user’s predicted purpose for selecting content are provided. In one aspect, a method includes receiving an identifier of a referent entity associated with user-selectable content, identifying, based on a prediction of a purpose in selecting the content, at least one action to be executed that is associated with the entity, and providing, for display, at least one identifier of the at least one action to the device for selection by a user. Systems, graphical user interfaces, and machine-readable media are also provided.

How an entity and actions might be selected by a site visitor

A person searches for a site using text such as “sushi restaurants in Mountain View.” That person then circles the text “we love Ramen Sushi out of all of the places we’ve been to” on the web page they found with that search, by circling the text using a touch input. Based on the content they chose and the context of their selection of that text, The system decides that viewer of the page has selected “Ramen Sushi,” and it proposes that entity to the user. The user can confirm that, and is then given a number of actions to perform on the entity based on a context of that selection.

Someone circles an entity on a touch screen to perform actions on it.
Someone circles an entity on a touch screen to perform actions on it.

The context can include:

  • The current location of the device
  • A past location of the device
  • The type of the device
  • A previous action associated with the entity taken by the user or another user
  • A search query
  • Information on another user associated with the user
  • The file from which the user-selectable content was selected
  • The remaining content from which the user-selectable content was selected

Actions might then be displayed that could include:

  • Directions to Ramen Sushi
  • Make a reservation at Ramen Sushi
  • Operating hours for Ramen Sushi
  • Reviews of Ramen Sushi

Once an action is chosen, it can be performed by the system.

Entities are contained in an entity database, which may contain attributes or properties associated with the entity, and those can be pre-defined, and can have associated descriptors such as “location,” “restaurant,” and “phone number.” An entity that is a person such as George Washington can have an associated descriptor “notable person”.

The patent tells us that entities that are listed in the entity database can be associated with one or many user purposes and/or actions based on an associated descriptor.

A purpose is something that a user would want to do or find out with respect to an entity that selected. These actions are shown in a menu to the user as choices of actions to take regarding selected entities. These purposes may be referred to as a “task.” The patent provides a number of examples, that include:

“play” (e.g. for games and sports), “rate” or “evaluate,” “travel to,” “contact,” “communicate,” “share,” “record,” “remember,” dine,” “consume,” “experience” or “enjoy” (e.g. art, music), “reserve” (tickets, etc.), “compare,” “learn,” “study,” “understand,” “purchase,” “repair,” “fix,” “teach,” “cook,” and “make.” For the example purpose “dine,” an example sub-purpose can be “eat dinner,” from which example sub-purposes can be “make reservation,” “get directions,” and “find parking.”

The patent tells us that users can select multiple entities of the same type at the same time to compare them.

Entities, purposes, and actions can be added to the entity database either manually or automatically with a user (or even an owner of the entity) adding information. The patent provides some examples of how information might be added to the entity database, but it seems to be fairly wide open under the patent.

The patent doesn’t mention Schema vocabulary, which would be one way for a site owner to add entity information to an entity database.

Entities may be products, and actions presented to a user could include providing a review of the product, identifying a seller of the product, providing a price for the product, or providing an offer (e.g., discount or coupon) associated with the product. If the entity is a service, such as watching a movie or a plumber for hire, the actions that may be presented to the user could include “providing a review of the service, identifying an availability of the service (e.g., show times), identifying a location where the service is being provided (e.g., an address of the plumber), or providing an option to purchase the service (e.g., purchasing tickets for the movie or rates offered by the plumber).”

Take Aways

The entity database described in this patent could be a very big one, containing multiple businesses (like those from Google Maps), multiple products, multiple people (like those found at a knowledge base like Wikipedia), and multiple potential actions and tasks associated with those entities.

This seems to be a fairly aspirational patent, which might require a lot of steps being put into place before it is implemented. It does present a vision of how entities on the web could eventually be acted upon by people who see them in web pages.

This could be something that Google may intend to do, and some of the pieces for it are in place, such as a knowledge graph filled with entities, and a schema system that is extendable. It’s interesting seeing a patent that lays out a framework like this one does. Is this a future path that Google will follow? We may need to wait to see.


Copyright © 2016 SEO by the Sea. This Feed is for personal non-commercial use only. If you are not reading this material in your news aggregator, the site you are looking at may be guilty of copyright infringement. Please contact SEO by the Sea, so we can take appropriate action immediately.
Plugin by Taragana

The post Selecting Entities on Sites and Performing Tasks On Them Through Google appeared first on SEO by the Sea.





Source link

Share Button

New Visual Search Photo Features from Google


Visual Search Image outlining

These details come from an anonymous source who also gave us a bit more details on the project. The report states there will be a new feature integrated, allowing users to outline specific areas of the image in order to directly target their searches.

In Google Goggles, one can only search the whole image, which has proven to bring plenty of discrepancies. Images often display plenty of distractions, background items and other objects that may throw off a search result. According to the sketch provided, the system will also be able to recommend retailers for purchasing products, as well as other details.

Furthermore, it is said this technology has also been tested in “wearable computing devices”. This could suggest this technology may come to products like Google Glass and possibly even VR (or AR) headsets.

Google Camera app rumored to get Google Goggles functionality

Today we’re to understand – from an anonymous source, as it were – that Google may soon be releasing a new camera feature they’ve had in testing for some time. This feature would allow the user to use their standard Google Camera app to search for information based on what they’re able to see – but more than that.

Google is building a better Android camera that can search what it sees

Details given to Android Authority through an anonymous source state that the integration would include a new feature “allowing users to outline specific areas of the image” in order to directly target their searches. This would be an improvement on the current iteration of Google Goggles, which only allows you to search whole images.

Google may reportedly add augmented reality support to its camera app

I’ve noticed some stories about new visual search features available through Google that have been leaked out to the media from an anonymous source. And I also noticed a patent application filed by Google, which was just published which contains at least one image that is the same as one supplied to Android Authority, which makes me wonder if the anonymous source that contacted them was from Google.

The patent filing does describe how a person might take an image from a photograph and outline part of that image with a stylus or a finger, and have search features available to them like those available from within Google Goggles.

Back in 2011, I wrote the post The Future of Google’s Visual Phone Search?, which supposedly would offer the ability to provide mixtures of searches simultaneously on an image, of the types offered through the Google Goggles App. That type of rich visual search never materialized from Google. The types of search under that richer visual search patent filing from 2011, included:

  • A facial recognition search
  • An OCR search for text in the image
  • An image-to-terms search system, which may use object recognition
  • A product recognition search, which could recognize two dimensional images such as book covers and CDs,and three dimensional images such as furniture
  • A bar code recognition search
  • A named entity recognition search, which could provide information about specific people, places, and things
  • A landmark recognition search, recognizing actual landmarks and possibly images advertised on billboards
  • A place recognition search that might be aided by geo-location information provided by something like a GPS receiver
  • A color recognition search, and
  • A similar image search, which looks for images similar to the one that you’ve used as a query

A wearable device, that could be Google Glass, might use a camera to watch an object from a photo be outlined, and that outlining could trigger a visual search. based upon the part of the image outlined, and the search could be one of these specialized searches that we see from Google Goggles. You would ideally take a photograph, and then outline an object within the image, and that outlining would be captured by your wearable device.

The patent filing that provides more details on this rumored visual search is:

Object Outlining to Initiate a Visual Search
Filed: 04.12.2015
Published: 24.03.2016
Inventors: Thad Eugene Starner, Irfan Essa
Abstract:

Methods and devices for initiating a search of an object are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method is disclosed that includes receiving sensor data from a sensor on a wearable computing device and, based on the sensor data, detecting a movement that defines an outline of an area in the sensor data. The method further includes identifying an object that is located in the area and initiating a search on the object. In another embodiment, a server is disclosed that includes an interface configured to receive sensor data from a sensor on a wearable computing device, at least one processor, and data storage comprising instructions executable by the at least one processor to detect, based on the sensor data, a movement that defines an outline of an area in the sensor data, identify an object that is located in the area, and initiate a search on the object.

Thad Starner is, among other things, a technical lead manager for Google Glass and the director for the Contextual Computing Group at Georgia Tech Ifran Essa teaches at the Georgia Tech Institute for Robotics and Intelligent Machines and does Research on Video Analysis and Enhancement for Google.

Take Aways

The patent tells us that the advantages of the approach in this patent,is that outlining the object can speed up the search and “computing power may not be expended to perform searches in which the user is not interested.”

That makes it sound like it is something of a reaction to the multiple searches to be performed for the patent I wrote about in 2011.

I’ve used Google Goggles before, and it can be a little tricky to take a picture of one object for the app to function upon. and you may want to search for something in a photo that you’ve taken that you wanted to capture as part of a photograph, rather than using Google Google’s upon. And you may want to save that photo as a photo, which I don’t think you can do with Google Goggles.

This appears to require that someone use a wearable such as Glass (It hints that other wearables could be used) along with a camera from a smartphone to perform visual searches. It’s the first patent that I’ve seen from Google that requires a combined use such as that – it’s possible that there have been others, but I didn’t see them. Given how popular phones with cameras are these days, I don’t think it’s a problem that it combines multiple devices like this. and it seems to make Google Glass have more uses. I suspect that you can outlines objects on images that you didn’t photograph as well.


Copyright © 2016 SEO by the Sea. This Feed is for personal non-commercial use only. If you are not reading this material in your news aggregator, the site you are looking at may be guilty of copyright infringement. Please contact SEO by the Sea, so we can take appropriate action immediately.
Plugin by Taragana

The post New Visual Search Photo Features from Google appeared first on SEO by the Sea.





Source link

Share Button

Google Granted Patent on How Self-Driving Cars Might Handle Tailgaters


Self-Driving Car

Google’s self driving cars have covered over a million miles of roadway, and recently, one of them crashed into a slow moving bus. Details about the accident can be found in Google’s bus crash is changing the conversation around self-driving cars. Oddly timed, but appropriate, Google seems to have been working on the issue that caused that problem, as we are told in this article: A Month After Google’s Car Hit a Bus, Google Got a Patent for Robot Cars to Detect Buses.

Because of the timing of that patent, I’m not surprised by another one being granted today involving self-driving cars, on how it might respond to tailgaters. That patent is:

Detecting and responding to tailgaters
Inventors: Dmitri A. Dolgov, Philip Nemec, Anne Kristiina Aula
Assigned to: Google
United States Patent 9,290,181
Granted March 22, 2016
Filed: May 4, 2015

Abstract:

An autonomous vehicle detects a tailgating vehicle and uses various response mechanisms. A vehicle is identified as a tailgater based on whether its characteristics meet a variable threshold. When the autonomous vehicle is traveling at slower speeds, the threshold is defined in distance. When the autonomous vehicle is traveling at faster speeds, the threshold is defined in time. The autonomous vehicle responds to the tailgater by modifying its driving behavior. In one example, the autonomous vehicle adjusts a headway buffer (defined in time) from another vehicle in front of the autonomous vehicle. In this regard, if the tailgater is T seconds too close to the autonomous vehicle, the autonomous vehicle increases the headway buffer to the vehicle in front of it by some amount relative to T.

tailgating cars

The patent tells us about the many different types of sensors that might be installed upon the self-driving car, and how it might respond to tailgating. It’s interesting seeing information about how Google is planning upon addressing potential problems that might spring up with autonomous vehicles.

The carefulness of such planning might just make their self-driving car program a success


Copyright © 2016 SEO by the Sea. This Feed is for personal non-commercial use only. If you are not reading this material in your news aggregator, the site you are looking at may be guilty of copyright infringement. Please contact SEO by the Sea, so we can take appropriate action immediately.
Plugin by Taragana

The post Google Granted Patent on How Self-Driving Cars Might Handle Tailgaters appeared first on SEO by the Sea.





Source link

Share Button

Google Assigns 148 Medical Patents to Verily Life Sciences


Back in September of 2009, I wrote a blog post that I titled Google’s 10 Oddest Patents. The first of those that I included in that list was one named Instrument for medical purposes, I included it mostly because Google was a search company, and it felt odd that Google would have a patent on a medical process. That one used “ultrasonic sound to investigate the structural makeup of biological tissue in organs and vessels.”

Times have changed, and since that time, Google has restructured and put itself under a holding company structure with the name Alphabet running all elements of the company. A branch of the Company had evolved that was being referred to as “Google Life Sciences,” and it changed names recently as well, to Verily Life Sciences.

What role and what kind of impact might these new subsidiary have? I was wondering if Google would make changes to the patent assignments it had made along with the name changes, and I was surprised to see them do so, where they assigned 148 patents to Verily Life Sciences on two different days. It’s an interesting list, and I’ve provided it here. They may technically have ownership under other patents as well, but this list points to a number that could possibly become products that the company offers to the public, after any government approval that they may need to pursue.

This recent story highlights the kind of approval that medical devices need to acquire before they are used for medical purposes: Google offshoot Verily reveals connectivity device to aggregate medical data.

Verily may become involved in medical studies, like this one described to be between Vanderbilt and Verily: Vanderbilt, Google’s Verily to Launch Precision Medicine Initiative Cohort.

This article provides some possible valuations as to what kinds of money are potentially available to companies providing healthcare products and benefits to people: How Alphabet Is Eyeing The Lucrative Healthcare Industry With Verily.

This article presents healthcare as a potentially very lucrative field for Google to be entering: New Miniature Continuous Glucose Monitoring Devices from DexCom and Verily (Google Life Sciences) Promise to Make Glucose Monitoring Wearable and Affordable.

This followup to that story shows that plans are being made to release products over the next few years: Google’s Verily, Dexcom aim to launch mini glucose monitor in 2018, with next-gen by 2021.

I’ve written about one of these patents in the past, in the post Google Files Patent For Wearable Nanotechnology Anti-Cancer Technology, and that patent is included in the assignment, as is a patent for a Star Trek like Needle free blood draw device that was published this past December.

I decided to publish links to these patent filings, and information about the dates they were filed, and when they were either published (for the pending patent applications) or granted (for the many that have been granted so far). There are many contact lens focused patents in the group, but other ones that have different purposes as well. If any stand out to you as interesting in some way, please share with us, and let us know why.

There seem to be many opportunities available to Google to pursue, and I’m excited that so many options are open to them. I also like that now that I’m seeing patents that describe medical devices coming from Google, that enough has changed that I no longer think of them as “odd,” but am instead excited to see how those may be used. These are exciting times, and it appears that Google is off to a good start addressing medical problems.

Contact Lenses
Inventors: Brian Otis, Babak Amirparviz
Filed Jul 10, 2014
Granted Aug 5, 2014
Abstract:

Apparatus, systems and methods for facilitating iris-scanning contact lenses and/or biometric identification employing iris scanning contact lenses are provided. In one implementation, the contact lens can include: a transparent substrate formed to cover at least a portion of an iris of an eye; and a circuit. The circuit can include: one or more light sensors disposed on or within the transparent substrate and that detects light filtered through the iris and incident on the one or more light sensors; readout circuitry, operably coupled to the one or more light sensors, that outputs information indicative of the light filtered through the iris and incident on the one or more light sensors; and a power component that supplies power to the readout circuitry. In various implementations, the contact lens can be employed in systems and/or methods associated with authentication and identification.

Contact Lenses With Hybrid Power Sources
Inventors: Nathan Pletcher, Brian Otis
Filed Jul 26, 2012
Published Jul 10, 2014
Abstract:

Apparatus, systems and methods of contact lenses with power sources are provided. In some aspects, a contact lens can include a substrate; and a circuit. The circuit can include: one or more sensors disposed on or within the substrate; circuitry disposed on at least a portion of the substrate; one or more photovoltaic cells disposed on at least a portion of the substrate; and a hybrid power component that supplies at least one of two or more different types of power to the circuitry, wherein at least one of the two or more different types of power is radio frequency/inductive power. In various aspects, other types of power can be solar and/or microelectromechanical system power. Additionally, in various aspects, photovoltaic cells can be arrayed in different configurations and/or over a significant portion of a viewing surface of the contact lens. In some aspects, the photovoltaic cells can be transparent.

Contact Lens Employing Optical Signals for Power and/or Communication
Inventors: Nathan Pletcher, Brian Otis
Filed Jul 26, 2012
Granted Oct 13, 2015
Abstract:

Apparatus, systems and methods employing contact lens sensors are provided. In some aspects, a contact lens includes a substrate that forms at least a portion of the body of the contact lens; an optical communication device disposed on or within the substrate; and a photodetector disposed on or within the substrate, wherein the photodetector harvests light emitted from a device and generates power from the harvested light. In some aspects, an apparatus comprises a tag having a circuit including: an optical communication device; and a photodetector that harvests light received and generates power from the harvested light. The tag can be disposed on or within a contact lens in various aspects.

Actuatable Contact Lenses
Inventors: Harvey Ho
Filed Aug 2, 2012
Granted Dec 30, 2014
Abstract:

Apparatus, systems and methods for facilitating actuatable contact lenses are provided. In one aspect, the contact lens can include: a substrate comprised of a material that is actuatable to at least one of change a base curvature from a first curvature to a second curvature or change a thickness from a first thickness to a second thickness; and a control component, operably coupled to the material, that outputs actuation information to cause the material to actuate and at least one of change the base curvature of the material or change the thickness of the material. The contact lens can be actuated based on a condition associated with an environment surrounding the contact lens, a sensed prescription for an eye over which the contact lens is placed or based on a focal point of the eye. The material can include piezoelectric film, a shape memory alloy, hydrogel and/or silicone elastomer.

Contact Lenses Having Two-Electrode Electrochemical Sensors
Inventors: Zenghe Liu
Filed Aug 6, 2012
Published Jul 10, 2014
Abstract:

Apparatus, systems and methods employing contact lenses with two-electrode electrochemical sensors are provided. In some aspects, the contact lens includes: a substrate that forms at least part of a body of the contact lens; and a circuit, disposed on or within the substrate, and including a two-electrode electrochemical sensor. The two-electrode electrochemical sensor can include: a working electrode; and a combination reference-counter electrode. The electrochemical sensor can be an amperometric sensor that senses a biological feature of a wearer of the contact lens. The working electrode can generate a signal indicative of the sensed analyte, and the combination reference-counter electrode can pass the signal generated from the working electrode. The signal can be employed to determine the analyte concentration of a solution in contact with the contact lens.

Contact Lens with Integrated Pulse Oximeter
Inventors: Harvey Ho, Babak Amirparviz
Filed Aug 21, 2012
Granted Mar 3, 2015
Abstract:

Apparatus, systems and methods employing a contact lens having a pulse oximetry sensor to detect information indicative of a blood oxygen content and/or pulse rate of a wearer of the contact lens, are provided. In some aspects, a contact lens includes a substrate that forms at least part of a body of the contact lens and a pulse oximetry sensor located on or within the substrate that detects information associated with at least one of blood oxygen content or a pulse rate of a wearer of the contact lens. The pulse oximetry sensor comprises one or more light emitting diodes that illuminate a blood vessel of at least one of a region of an eye or an eyelid and a detector that receives light reflected from the blood vessel and generates the information.

Passive Surface Acostic Wave Communication
Inventors: Harvey Ho, Babak Amirparviz
Filed Sep 5, 2012
Granted Sep 2, 2014
Abstract:

This disclosure relates to systems and/or methods for detection of eye blinking by interrogating a passive surface acoustic wave based contact lens using an interrogation signal and interpreting reflections of the interrogation signal from the passive surface acoustic wave based contact lens.

In-Situ Tear Sample Collection and Testing Using a Contact Lens
Inventors: Zenghe Liu, James Etzkorn
Filed Sep 7, 2012
Published Jul 10, 2014
Abstract:

Apparatus, systems and methods employing contact lenses having one or more sensor that sense an analyte in tear fluid and one or more recesses that collect the tear fluid. In some aspects, a contact lens includes a substrate that forms at least part of a body of the contact lens and a recess formed within the substrate configured to collect tear fluid when the contact lens is worn. The contact lens further includes at least one sensor disposed within the substrate configured to sense presence of an analyte in the collected tear fluid.

Sensor
Inventors: Zenghe Liu, Babak Amirparviz
Filed Sep 17, 2012
Published Jul 24, 2014
Abstract:

Apparatus, systems and methods employing contact lenses having an electrochemical sensor to detect ethanol concentration of a wearer of the contact lens are provided. In some aspects, a contact lens includes a substrate that forms at least part of a body of the contact lens and an electrochemical sensor, disposed on or within the substrate, that detects information related to concentration of alcohol present in blood of a wearer of the contact lens.

Contact Lens that Facilitates Antenna Communication Via Sensor Impedance Modulation
Inventors: Brian Otis, Nathan Pletcher
Filed Sep 24, 2012
Granted Oct 28, 2014
Abstract:

Systems, contact lenses and methods that facilitate antenna communication via sensor impedance modulation are provided. In one aspect, a system can include a contact lens and a radio frequency (RF) reader. The contact lens can include a substrate; an RF antenna, disposed on or within the substrate; and a sensing component, disposed on or within the substrate, and directly coupled to the RF antenna, wherein the RF antenna is configured to change impedance value as a sensed value of the sensing component changes. The RF reader is external to the contact lens, and configured to interrogate the RF antenna with an RF signal. The RF reader can receive a reflected RF signal from the RF antenna in response to the interrogation. The magnitude, phase and/or a frequency of the reflected RF signal can be based on the impedance value of the RF antenna.

Contact Lens That Restricts Incoming Light To The Eye
Inventors: James Etzkorn, Brian Otis
Filed Sep 24, 2012
Granted Feb 24, 2015
Abstract:

This disclosure generally relates to systems and/or methods to restrict light entering an opening of an eye pupil by detecting pupil dilation, detecting incoming light intensity or direction, and adjusting light restricting properties of one or more light restricting regions of the contact lens based upon the detected pupil dilation parameters and incoming light intensity or direction.

Information Processing Method
Inventors: Ehsan Saeedi, Babak Amirparviz
Filed Sep 25, 2012
Published Mar 27, 2014
Abstract:

Systems, apparatus and methods including a contact lens that facilitates collection and/or processing of information associated with sensed features are provided. In one aspect, a system can include a contact lens and an analysis component external to the contact lens. The contact lens can include: a substrate; and a circuit, disposed on or within the substrate. The circuit can include: a plurality of sensors configured to sense respective features associated with a wearer of the contact lens; and a communication component configured to communicate information indicative of sensed features. The analysis component can be configured to: receive the information indicative of the sensed features; and generate statistical information based, at least, on the information indicative of the sensed features.

Facilitation of Temperature Compensation For Contact Lens Sensors and Temperature Sensing
Inventors: Zenghe Liu, Nathan Pletcher, Brian Otis
Filed Sep 25, 2012
Published Mar 17, 2015
Abstract:

Apparatus, systems and methods employing contact lens sensors are provided. In some aspects, a contact lens includes a substrate and a circuit. The circuit can include: one or more sensors disposed on or within the substrate, that sense a feature associated with a wearer of the contact lens; and a compensation circuit disposed on or within the substrate, coupled to the sensor(s) and that outputs information to adjust an output of the sensor(s). The compensation circuit can include: a temperature component that senses the temperature of the sensor(s); and a communication component that outputs information indicative of the temperature of the sensor(s), and receives information associated with adjusting the output of the sensor(s). In other aspects, a contact lens includes a circuit that senses the body temperature, or ambient temperature outside of the body, of the contact lens wearer. Sensor fusion and/or calibration can be performed based on the information.

Contact Lens Having a Chip Integrated Into a Polymer Substrate and Method of Manufacture
Inventors: James Etzkorn
Filed Sep 25, 2012
Published Mar 27, 2014
Abstract:

Contact lenses and methods of manufacture are provided. In one aspect, a method includes: positioning components in predefined locations on a first surface; applying pressure on the components employing a second surface; providing molten material between the first surface and the second surface and around the components; embedding the components in a substrate by cooling the molten material and causing the molten material to harden, the substrate being a substantially solid form of molten material; and removing the first surface and the second surface after embedding the components in the substrate. The method can also include: providing, on or within a contact lens, one of the components and the substrate into which the component is embedded. The first surface can include molds sized to receive and maintain the components at the predefined locations. The first surface and/or the second surface can be pre-treated with a non-stick coating such as Polytetrafluoroethylene.

Wearable Device
Inventors: Babak Amirparviz, Harvey Ho
Filed Sep 25, 2012
Granted Mar 24, 2015
Abstract:

Apparatus, systems and methods employing a contact lens that generates information indicative of a hydration level of an eye in which the lens is worn, are provided. In some aspects, a contact lens includes a substrate that forms at least part of a body of the contact lens and a hydration component that generates information associated with a hydration level of an eye in which the contact lens is worn.

Assembling Thin Silicon Chips on a Contact Lens
Inventors: James Etzkorn
Filed Sep 26, 2012
Granted Feb 24, 2015
Abstract:

A contact lens having a thin silicon chip integrated therein is provided along with methods for assembling the silicon chip within the contact lens. In an aspect, a method includes creating a plurality of lens contact pads on a lens substrate and creating a plurality of chip contact pads on a chip. The method further involves applying assembly bonding material to the each of the plurality of lens contact pads or chip contact pads, aligning the plurality of lens contact pads with the plurality of chip contact pads, bonding the chip to the lens substrate via the assembly bonding material using flip chip bonding, and forming a contact lens with the lens substrate.

Contact Lens Having an Uneven Embedded Substrate and Method of Manufacture
Inventors: James Etzkorn, Babak Amirparviz
Filed Sep 26, 2012
Granted Mar 24, 2015
Abstract:

Contact lenses and methods of manufacturing contact lenses are provided. In one aspect, a method includes: forming a substrate having an uneven surface; providing a sensor at a first region of the substrate; providing a chip at a second region of the substrate; and encapsulating the substrate, sensor and chip in a polymer. The method also includes: patterning interconnections from the first region of the substrate to the second region of the substrate; and patterning metal pads proximate to the second region of the substrate. The chip can be provided on a metal pad. The uneven surface can be a sloped surface or one or more sloped channels in the substrate, and the channels can be wide enough to receive interconnections for the chip and to receive the chip. Further, the substrate can be ring-shaped and curved prior to encapsulation.

In-Vitro Contact Lens Testing
Inventors: Zenghe Liu, James Etzkorn
Filed Sep 26, 2012
Granted Sep 2, 2014
Abstract:

Contact lens testing apparatuses and method for testing contact lenses for analytes are presented. In an aspect, a device is provided that includes a housing configured to hold one or more contact lenses, and a testing compartment provided within the housing and comprising a reagent, the reagent configured to facilitate a chemical reaction in response to the existence of a predetermined biomarker disposed on or within a contact lens placed in the testing compartment, wherein the chemical reaction produces a known result related to state information of an individual from which the biomarker was generated.

Facilitation of Tear Sample Collection and Testing Using a Contact Lens
Inventors: James Etzkorn, Zenghe Liu
Filed Sep 26, 2012
Published Mar 27, 2014
Abstract:

Apparatus, systems and methods employing contact lens sensors are provided. In some aspects, a contact lens includes a substrate and a circuit. The circuit can include: one or more sensors disposed on or within the substrate, that sense a feature associated with a wearer of the contact lens; and a compensation circuit disposed on or within the substrate, coupled to the sensor(s) and that outputs information to adjust an output of the sensor(s). The compensation circuit can include: a temperature component that senses the temperature of the sensor(s); and a communication component that outputs information indicative of the temperature of the sensor(s), and receives information associated with adjusting the output of the sensor(s). In other aspects, a contact lens includes a circuit that senses the body temperature, or ambient temperature outside of the body, of the contact lens wearer. Sensor fusion and/or calibration can be performed based on the information.

Image Capture Component on Active Lens
Inventors: Nathan Pletcher, Olivia Hatalsky, Babak Amirparviz
Filed Oct 8, 2012
Published Apr 10, 2014
Abstract:

This disclosure relates to systems and/or methods for capturing image data representing a scene in a gaze of a viewer via a thin image capture component integrated on or within a contact lens, processing the image data, and employing the processed image data to perform functions locally on the contact lens or remotely on one or more remote devices.

In-vitro Calibration Of An Ophthalmic Analyte Sensor
Inventors: Brian Otis, Zenghe Liu
Filed Oct 12, 2012
Published Apr 17, 2014
Abstract:

An eye-mountable device includes an electrochemical sensor embedded in a polymeric material configured for mounting to a surface of an eye. The electrochemical sensor includes a working electrode, a reference electrode, and a reagent that selectively reacts with an analyte to generate a sensor measurement related to a concentration of the analyte in a fluid to which the eye-mountable device is exposed. A calibration-solution measurement is obtained while the eye-mountable device is exposed to a calibration solution. A calibration value is determined based on at least the calibration-solution measurement and an analyte concentration of the calibration solution. A tear-film measurement is obtained while the eye-mountable device is mounted to an eye so as to be exposed to tear film. The analyte concentration of the tear film is determined based on at least the tear-film measurement and the calibration value.

Contact Lens and Method of Manufacture to Improve Sensor Sensitivity
Inventors: Jeffrey George Linhardt, James Etzkorn
Filed Oct 24, 2012
Granted Nov 3, 2015
Abstract:

Contact lenses and methods of manufacture are provided. A contact lens can include: an electronics substrate having components formed thereon and disposed within a contact lens forming (CLF) polymer, wherein a first one of the components is positioned at a first region of the electronics substrate and a second one of the components is positioned at a second region of the electronics substrate, the second region being opposite the first region; and a plurality of CLF polymer layers molded such that the plurality of CLF polymer layers has a first thickness in a region of the electronics substrate associated with the first one of the components and has a second thickness in a region of the electronics substrate associated with the second one of the components.

Encapsulated Electronics
Inventors: James Etzkorn, Babak Amirparviz
Filed Jan 15, 2013
Granted Oct 28, 2014
Abstract:

An eye-mountable device includes an electrochemical sensor embedded in a polymeric material configured for mounting to a surface of an eye. The electrochemical sensor includes a working electrode and a reference electrode that reacts with an analyte to generate a sensor measurement related to a concentration of the analyte in a fluid to which the eye-mountable device is exposed. An example assembly process includes: forming a sacrificial layer on a working substrate; forming a first layer of a bio-compatible material on the sacrificial layer; providing an electronics module on the first layer of the bio-compatible material, forming a second layer of the bio-compatible material to cover the electronics module; and annealing the first and second layers of the bio-compatible material together to form an encapsulated structure having the electronics module fully encapsulated by the bio-compatible material.

Method of Ring-Shaped Structure Placement in an Eye-Mountable Device
Inventors: Jeffrey George Linhardt, Harvey Ho
Filed Jan 17, 2013
Published Jul 17, 2014
Abstract:

An eye-mountable device includes an electrochemical sensor embedded in a polymeric material configured for mounting to a surface of an eye. The electrochemical sensor applies a stabilization voltage between a working electrode and a reference electrode to allow the amperometric current to stabilize before powering measurement electronics configured to measure the amperometric current and communicate the measured amperometric current. The electrochemical sensor consumes less power while applying the stabilization voltage than during the measurement. The measurement is initiated in response to receiving a measurement signal at an antenna in the eye-mountable device.

Standby Biasing Of Electrochemical Sensor To Reduce Sensor Stabilization Time During Measurement
Inventors: Nathan Pletcher, Brian Otis
Filed Jan 25, 2013
Published Jul 31, 2014
Abstract:

An eye-mountable device includes an electrochemical sensor embedded in a polymeric material configured for mounting to a surface of an eye. The electrochemical sensor applies a stabilization voltage between a working electrode and a reference electrode to allow the amperometric current to stabilize before powering measurement electronics configured to measure the amperometric current and communicate the measured amperometric current. The electrochemical sensor consumes less power while applying the stabilization voltage than during the measurement. The measurement is initiated in response to receiving a measurement signal at an antenna in the eye-mountable device.

Systems and Methods for Encapsulating Electronics in a Mountable Device
Inventors: James Etzkorn
Filed Mar 26, 2013
Granted Oct 20, 2015
Abstract:

A mountable device includes a bio-compatible structure embedded in a polymer that defines at least one mounting surface. The bio-compatible structure has a first side defined by a first layer of bio-compatible material, a second side defined by a second layer of bio-compatible material, an electronic component, and a conductive pattern that defines sensor electrodes. A portion of the second layer of bio-compatible material is removed by etching to create at least one opening in the second side in which the sensor electrodes are exposed. The etching further removes a portion of the first layer of bio-compatible material so as to create at least one opening in the first side that is connected to the at least opening in the second side. With this arrangement of openings, analytes can reach the sensor electrodes from either the first side or the second side of the bio-compatible structure.

Systems and Methods for Encapsulating Electronics in a Mountable Device
Inventors: James Etzkorn
Filed Mar 27, 2013
Granted Aug 25, 2015
Abstract:

A mountable device includes a bio-compatible structure embedded in a polymer that defines at least one mounting surface. The bio-compatible structure includes an electronic component having electrical contacts, sensor electrodes, and electrical interconnects between the sensor electrodes and the electrical contacts. The bio-compatible structure is fabricated such that it is fully encapsulated by a bio-compatible material, except for the sensor electrodes. In the fabrication, the electronic component is positioned on a first layer of bio-compatible material and a second layer of bio-compatible material is formed over the first layer of bio-compatible material and the electronic component. The electrical contacts are exposed by removing a portion of the second layer, a conductive pattern is formed to define the sensor electrodes and electrical interconnects, and a third layer of bio-compatible material is formed over the conductive pattern. The sensor electrodes are exposed by removing a portion of the third layer.

Utilizing Oscillator Frequency Divider Settings As A Temperature Sensor In Radio Frequency Applications
Inventors: Brian Patrick Otis, Nathan Pletcher, Daniel Yeager
Filed May 24, 2013
Granted May 5, 2015
Abstract:

Methods and systems for utilizing oscillator frequency divider settings as a temperature sensor are described herein. An example method may involve a reader device transmitting an RF signal to a tag device that includes an electronic oscillator configured to generate an oscillator signal with an oscillator frequency and a frequency adjuster configured to adjust the oscillator frequency with a frequency adjustment factor to provide a resulting frequency, the oscillator frequency being dependent on a temperature of the tag device and the resulting frequency being based on a reference frequency provided by the RF signal. The method may also involve the reader device receiving data from the tag device, the data being indicative of the oscillator frequency. The method may further involve the reader device determining an estimate of the temperature of the tag device based on at least the received data and a predetermined relationship between temperature and oscillator frequency.

Body-Mountable Devices and Methods for Embedding a Structure in a Body-Mountable Device
Inventors: James Etzkorn, Stephen O’Driscoll
Filed Jun 14, 2013
Published Dec 18, 2014
Abstract:

Body-mountable devices and methods for embedding a structure in a body-mountable device are described. A body-mountable device includes a transparent polymer and a structure embedded in the transparent polymer. The transparent polymer defines a posterior side and an anterior side of the body-mountable device. The structure has an outer diameter and an inner diameter and includes a sensor configured to detect an analyte and an antenna. The antenna includes a plurality of conductive loops spaced apart from each other between the outer diameter and the inner diameter.

Physiological Measurement Using Wearable Device
Inventors: Andrew Conrad, Eric Peeters
Filed Jun 21, 2013
Published Dec 25, 2014
Abstract:

A wearable device includes a detector configured to detect a response signal transmitted from a portion of subsurface vasculature, the response signal being related to binding of a clinically-relevant analyte to functionalized particles present in a lumen of the subsurface vasculature. Program instructions stored in a computer readable medium of the device, and executable by a processor, may cause the device to determine a concentration of the clinically-relevant analyte based on the response signal detected by the detector; determine whether a medical condition is indicated based on at least the concentration of the clinically-relevant analyte; and, in response to a determination that the medical condition is indicated, transmit data representative of the medical condition via the communication interface. The device may also include a signal source configured to transmit an interrogating signal into the portion of subsurface vasculature, thereby generating a response signal in response to the interrogating signal.

Test Platform for Wrist-Mounted Physiologic Measurement Device
Inventors: Andrew Conrad, Eric Peeters
Filed Jun 21, 2013
Published Dec 25, 2014
Abstract:

A test model has an outer polymer layer that models an exterior surface of a human arm and includes at least a wrist portion, an inner polymer core that is at least partially surrounded by the outer polymer layer and extends into the wrist portion, and polymer tubing adjacent to the inner polymer core. The polymer tubing is at least partially surrounded by the outer polymer layer and extends into the wrist portion. The polymer tubing has a first fluid inlet and a first fluid outlet. The test model is substantially free of metallic and magnetic materials.

Physiological Measurement Using Wearable Device
Inventors: Andrew Conrad, Eric Peeters
Filed Jun 21, 2013
Published 20140378777
Dec 25, 2014
Abstract:

A method for real-time, high-density physiological data collection includes automatically measuring, by a wearable device, one or more physiological parameters during each of a plurality of measurement periods, and upon conclusion of a measurement period, for each of the plurality of measurement periods, automatically transmitting by the wearable device data representative of the physiological parameters measured during that measurement period, to a server, the server configured to develop a baseline profile based on the data transmitted by the wearable device for the plurality of measurement periods. The measurement periods may extend through a plurality of consecutive days, and each of the consecutive days may include multiple measurement periods. At least some of the physiological parameters are measured by non-invasively detecting one or more analytes in blood circulating in subsurface vasculature proximate to the wearable device.

Container
Inventors: Jeffrey George Linhardt, Daniel Barrows
Filed Jun 24, 2013
Granted Jun 2, 2015
Abstract:

The present disclosure provides an apparatus including a first chamber containing an eye-mountable device. The apparatus may also include a second chamber containing an aqueous solution. The apparatus may also include a membrane positioned between the first chamber and the second chamber. The membrane may be configured to rupture based on application of a force to the apparatus. The ruptured membrane may allow the aqueous solution to engage with the eye-mountable device. The apparatus may also include a lid to seal one or more of the first chamber and the second chamber.

Device Identification
Inventors: Daniel Yeager, Brian Otis, Andrew Nelson
Filed Jun 28, 2013
Published Jan 1, 2015
Abstract:

An eye-mountable device includes a controller embedded in a polymeric material configured for mounting to a surface of an eye. The controller is electrically connected to an antenna included in the eye-mountable device. The controller is configured to: (i) receive an indication of an interrogation signal via the antenna, (ii) responsive to the interrogation signal, output a substantially unique identification sequence; and (iii) use the antenna to communicate the substantially unique identification sequence. The substantially unique identification sequence can then be used by external readers to associate the eye-mountable device with device-specific information without storing such information on the eye-mountable device.

Methods for Adhering a Substrate to a Polymer Layer
Inventors: Zenghe Liu, Jeffrey George Linhardt
Filed Jun 28, 2013
Published Jan 1, 2015
Abstract:

The present disclosure provides a method including forming a polymer layer defining a side of an eye-mountable device. The method may also include providing an adhesive in a ring-shaped pattern on a ring-shaped substrate or on the first polymer layer. The method may also include providing the ring-shaped substrate on the first polymer layer in a predetermined rotational orientation. The method may also include applying a force to one or more of the ring-shaped substrate and the polymer layer to adhere the first polymer layer to the ring-shaped substrate. The method may also include curing the ring-shaped substrate and the first polymer layer.

Chemically Reactive Enzyme Immobilization
Inventors: Zenghe Liu, Jeffrey George Linhardt
Filed Jun 28, 2013
Published Jan 1, 2015
Abstract:

An analyte sensor for the continuous or semi-continuous monitoring of physiological parameters and a method for making the analyte sensor are disclosed. The analyte sensor includes a crosslinked, hydrophilic copolymer sensing layer in contact with a surface of an electrode, where the sensing layer includes methacrylate-derived backbone chains having covalent bonds to an analyte sensing component. The method includes combining the precursor components of the sensing layer, depositing the combined mixture on a surface of an electrode, and curing the deposited mixture.

Porous Polymeric Formulation Prepared Using Monomer
Inventors: Zenghe Liu, Jeffrey George Linhardt
Filed Jun 28, 2013
Published Jan 1, 2015
Abstract:

An analyte sensor for the continuous or semi-continuous monitoring of physiological parameters and a method for making the analyte sensor are disclosed. In one aspect, the analyte sensor includes a crosslinked, hydrophilic copolymer in contact with a surface of an electrode, and an analyte sensing component embedded within the crosslinked, hydrophilic copolymer. The crosslinked, hydrophilic copolymer has methacrylate-derived backbone chains of first methacrylate-derived units, second methacrylate-derived units and third methacrylate-derived units. The first and second methacrylate-derived units have side chains that can be the same or different, and the third methacrylate-derived units in different backbone chains are connected by hydrophilic crosslinks.

Porous Polymeric Formulation Prepared Using Porogens
Inventors: Jeffrey George Linhardt, Zenghe Liu, Huanfen Yao
Filed Jun 28, 2013
Published Jan 1, 2015
Abstract:

An analyte sensor for the continuous or semi-continuous monitoring of physiological parameters and a method for making the analyte sensor are disclosed. The analyte sensor includes a crosslinked copolymer network in contact with a surface of an electrode. The copolymer network has voids formed by the removal of a porogen, and an analyte sensing component is immobilized within the network. The method involves forming a solution of the precursors of the copolymer, depositing the mixture on a surface of an electrode, and curing the deposited mixture to provide the analyte sensor.

Enzyme Immobilization by Crosslinking
Inventors: Zenghe Liu
Filed Jun 28, 2013
Published Jan 1, 2015
Abstract:

An analyte sensor for the continuous or semi-continuous monitoring of physiological parameters and a method for making the analyte sensor are disclosed. In one aspect, the analyte sensor includes an electrode, a sensing layer in contact with a surface of the electrode, and a protective membrane. The sensing layer is a crosslinked, hydrophilic copolymer including poly(alkylene oxide) and poly(vinyl pyridine), and an analyte sensing component is immobilized within the crosslinked, hydrophilic copolymer. The protective membrane is a crosslinked, hydrophilic copolymer including alkylene oxide, vinyl pyridine and styrene units. The method involves the formation of a sensing layer on a surface of an electrode, followed by the formation of a protective membrane on a surface of the sensing layer.

Methods for Forming a Channel Through a Polymer Layer Using One or More Photoresist Layers
Inventors: Huanfen Yao, Babak Parviz, Jeffrey George Linhardt
Filed Jun 28, 2013
Granted May 12, 2015
Abstract:

A method may involve forming one or more photoresist layers over a sensor located on a structure, such that the sensor is covered by the one or more photoresist layers. The sensor is configured to detect an analyte. The method may involve forming a first polymer layer. Further, the method may involve positioning the structure on the first polymer layer. Still further, the method may involve forming a second polymer layer over the first polymer layer and the structure, such that the structure is fully enclosed by the first polymer layer, the second polymer layer, and the one or more photoresist layers. The method may also involve removing the one or more photoresist layers to form a channel through the second polymer layer, wherein the sensor is configured to receive the analyte via the channel.

Devices and Methods for a Contact lens with an Outward Facing Light Source
Inventors: Brian Otis, Robert Francis Wiser, Andrew Nelson
Filed Jun 28, 2013
Granted Sep 16, 2014
Abstract:

A body-mountable device can include a transparent material and a substrate at least partially embedded in the transparent material. The transparent material can have a mounting surface and a surface opposite the mounting surface. A light source can be disposed on the substrate and configured to emit light through the surface opposite the mounting surface. The light source can be controlled by circuitry disposed on the substrate. The circuitry can be configured to receive modulation instructions and modulate the light emitted by the light source based on the modulation instructions.

Devices and Methods for a Contact lens with an Inward Facing Light SourceE
Inventors: Brian Otis, William James Biederman
Filed Jun 28, 2013
Published Jan 1, 2015
Abstract:

An eye-mountable device can include a transparent material and a substrate at least partially embedded in the transparent material. The transparent material can have a concave surface and a convex surface, with the concave surface configured to removably mount the eye-mountable device on a corneal surface overlaying a pupil. A light source can be disposed on the substrate and configured to emit light through the concave surface and towards the corneal surface such that the emitted light is viewable through the pupil. The light source can be controlled by circuitry disposed on the substrate. The circuitry can be configured to modulate the light emitted by the light source to provide modulated light.

Reader Communication with Contact Lens Sensors and Display Device
Inventors: Frank Honoré, Andrew Nelson, Brian Otis
Filed Jun 28, 2013
Granted Dec 30, 2014
Abstract:

A reader for communicating with both an eye-mountable device and a display device is provided. The reader can transmit radio frequency power to a tag that is part of the eye-mountable device. The reader can communicates with the tag using a first protocol. Communicating with the tag can include having the reader request data from the tag and receive the requested data from the tag. The reader can process the received data. The reader can store the processed data. The reader can communicates with the display device using a second protocol, where the first and second protocols can differ. Communicating with the display device can include having the reader transmit the stored data to the display device. The display device can receive the transmitted data, process the transmitted data, and generate one or more displays including the transmitted and/or processed data.

Using Unique Identifiers to Retrieve Configuration Data for Tag Devices
Inventors: Alice Lin, Andrew Nelson, Daniel Yeager, Brian Otis
Filed Aug 22, 2013
Granted Feb 2, 2016
Abstract:

Methods and systems for using unique identifiers to retrieve configuration data for tag devices are described herein. An example method may involve obtaining a unique identifier associated with a tag device. The tag device may include an antenna and a sensor configured to obtain sensor readings that can be wirelessly transmitted to a reader device via the antenna. The method may also involve determining configuration parameters associated with the tag device based on the unique identifier. The method may further involve storing, in at least one memory, at least a portion of the configuration parameters in association with the unique identifier.

Sacrificial Layers for Bio-Compatible Devices
Inventors: James Etzkorn, Harvey Ho, Huanfen Yao
Filed Aug 27, 2013
Published Mar 5, 2015
Abstract:

A method may involve: forming a sacrificial layer on a working substrate; forming a first bio-compatible layer on the sacrificial layer such that the first bio-compatible layer adheres to the sacrificial layer; forming a conductive pattern on the first bio-compatible layer; mounting an electronic component to the conductive pattern; forming a second bio-compatible layer over the first bio-compatible layer, the electronic component, and the conductive pattern; and removing the sacrificial layer to release the bio-compatible device from the working substrate. The first bio-compatible layer defines a first side of a bio-compatible device. The second bio-compatible layer defines a second side of the bio-compatible device.

Nanoparticle Phoresis
Inventors: Andrew Jason Conrad
Filed Sep 5, 2013
Published Mar 5, 2015
Abstract:

Functionalized particles in the blood are able to selectively bind to targets in the blood that have adverse health effects. The binding of the particles to the targets allows the targets to be selectively modified or destroyed by energy from outside the body such that the adverse health effects are reduced or eliminated. The energy is generated by a wearable device which is able to direct the energy into the subsurface vasculature of the wearer of the wearable device. Further, one or more of the functionalized particles may be magnetic, allowing a magnetic field generated by the wearable device and directed into the subsurface vasculature to concentrate the bound targets in a lumen of the subsurface vasculature proximate to the wearable device.

Delivery of Functionalized Particles
Inventors: Andrew Jason Conrad
Filed Sep 5, 2013
Published Mar 5, 2015
Abstract:

A device includes a capsule sized to pass through a lumen of a gastrointestinal tract, a plurality of functionalized particles disposed within the capsule, one or more tissue penetrating members configured to puncture a wall of the lumen of the intestinal tract; and an actuator having a first configuration and a second configuration. The actuator is configured to retain the plurality of functionalized particles within the capsule in the first configuration. The actuator is further configured to advance the plurality of functionalized particles from the capsule into a wall of the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract via the one or more tissue penetrating members by the actuator transitioning from the first configuration to the second configuration. Systems including the device and methods of delivering functionalized particles to the body are also provided.

Assembling Thin Silicon Chips on a Contact Lens
Inventors: James Etzkorn
Filed Sep 12, 2013
Granted Jun 9, 2015
Abstract:

A contact lens having a thin silicon chip integrated therein is provided along with methods for assembling the silicon chip within the contact lens. In an aspect, a method includes creating a plurality of lens contact pads on a lens substrate and creating a plurality of chip contact pads on a chip. The method further involves applying assembly bonding material to the each of the plurality of lens contact pads or chip contact pads, aligning the plurality of lens contact pads with the plurality of chip contact pads, bonding the chip to the lens substrate via the assembly bonding material using flip chip bonding, and forming a contact lens with the lens substrate.

Devices and Methods for a Contact lens with an Outward Facing Light Source
Inventors: Brian Otis, Robert Francis Wiser, Andrew Nelson
Filed Sep 16, 2013
Granted Sep 9, 2014
Abstract:

A body-mountable device can include a transparent material and a substrate at least partially embedded in the transparent material. The transparent material can have a mounting surface and a surface opposite the mounting surface. A light source can be disposed on the substrate and configured to emit light through the surface opposite the mounting surface. The light source can be controlled by circuitry disposed on the substrate. The circuitry can be configured to receive modulation instructions and modulate the light emitted by the light source based on the modulation instructions.

Devices and Methods for a Contact lens with an Inward Facing Light Source
Inventors: Brian Otis, William James Biederman
Filed Sep 16, 2013
Granted Jul 1, 2014
Abstract:

An eye-mountable device can include a transparent material and a substrate at least partially embedded in the transparent material. The transparent material can have a concave surface and a convex surface, with the concave surface configured to removably mount the eye-mountable device on a corneal surface overlaying a pupil. A light source can be disposed on the substrate and configured to emit light through the concave surface and towards the corneal surface such that the emitted light is viewable through the pupil. The light source can be controlled by circuitry disposed on the substrate. The circuitry can be configured to modulate the light emitted by the light source to provide modulated light.

Reader Communication With Contact Lens Sensors and Display Device
Inventors: Brian Otis, Frank Honoré, Andrew Nelson
Filed Sep 16, 2013
Granted Sep 8, 2015
Abstract:

A reader for communicating with both an eye-mountable device and a display device is provided. The reader can transmit radio frequency power to a tag that is part of the eye-mountable device. The reader can communicates with the tag using a first protocol. Communicating with the tag can include having the reader request data from the tag and receive the requested data from the tag. The reader can process the received data. The reader can store the processed data. The reader can communicates with the display device using a second protocol, where the first and second protocols can differ. Communicating with the display device can include having the reader transmit the stored data to the display device. The display device can receive the transmitted data, process the transmitted data, and generate one or more displays including the transmitted and/or processed data.

Device With Dual Power Sources
Inventors: Nathan Pletcher, Daniel Yeager, William James Biederman, Andrew Nelson
Filed Sep 16, 2013
Granted Jun 3, 2014
Abstract:

A wearable device includes a sensor, auxiliary electronics, a primary power supply configured to harvest radio frequency (RF) radiation received from an external reader and use the harvested RF radiation to power the sensor, and an auxiliary power supply configured to harvest energy other than that received from the external reader and use the harvested energy to supply power to the sensor and/or the auxiliary electronics. The external reader may supply less power in response to operation of the auxiliary power supply. Additionally or alternatively, in response to a determination that the auxiliary power supply is unable to supply power, the wearable device may disable all auxiliary electronics but for the sensor. In response to a determination that the primary power supply is unable to supply power but the auxiliary power supply is able to supply power, the wearable device may retain operating parameters in the memory storage unit using the auxiliary power supply.

Contact Lenses Having Two-Electrode Electrochemical Sensors
Inventors: Zenghe Liu
Filed Sep 17, 2013
Published Jul 10, 2014
Abstract:

Apparatus, systems and methods employing contact lenses with two-electrode electrochemical sensors are provided. In some aspects, the contact lens includes: a substrate that forms at least part of a body of the contact lens; and a circuit, disposed on or within the substrate, and including a two-electrode electrochemical sensor. The two-electrode electrochemical sensor can include: a working electrode; and a combination reference-counter electrode. The electrochemical sensor can be an amperometric sensor that senses a biological feature of a wearer of the contact lens. The working electrode can generate a signal indicative of the sensed analyte, and the combination reference-counter electrode can pass the signal generated from the working electrode. The signal can be employed to determine the analyte concentration of a solution in contact with the contact lens.

Contact Lens with Integrated Pulse Oximeter
Inventors: Harvey Ho, Babak Amirparviz
Filed Sep 17, 2013
Granted Dec 9, 2014
Abstract:

Apparatus, systems and methods employing a contact lens having a pulse oximetry sensor to detect information indicative of a blood oxygen content and/or pulse rate of a wearer of the contact lens, are provided. In some aspects, a contact lens includes a substrate that forms at least part of a body of the contact lens and a pulse oximetry sensor located on or within the substrate that detects information associated with at least one of blood oxygen content or a pulse rate of a wearer of the contact lens. The pulse oximetry sensor comprises one or more light emitting diodes that illuminate a blood vessel of at least one of a region of an eye or an eyelid and a detector that receives light reflected from the blood vessel and generates the information.

In-vitro Calibration Of An Ophthalmic Analyte Sensor
Inventors: Brian Otis, Zenghe Liu
Filed Sep 19, 2013
Published Apr 17, 2014
Abstract:

An eye-mountable device includes an electrochemical sensor embedded in a polymeric material configured for mounting to a surface of an eye. The electrochemical sensor includes a working electrode, a reference electrode, and a reagent that selectively reacts with an analyte to generate a sensor measurement related to a concentration of the analyte in a fluid to which the eye-mountable device is exposed. A calibration-solution measurement is obtained while the eye-mountable device is exposed to a calibration solution. A calibration value is determined based on at least the calibration-solution measurement and an analyte concentration of the calibration solution. A tear-film measurement is obtained while the eye-mountable device is mounted to an eye so as to be exposed to tear film. The analyte concentration of the tear film is determined based on at least the tear-film measurement and the calibration value.

Encapulated Electronics
Inventors: James Etzkorn, Babak Amirparviz
Filed Sep 19, 2013
Granted Nov 11, 2014
Abstract:

An eye-mountable device includes an electrochemical sensor embedded in a polymeric material configured for mounting to a surface of an eye. The electrochemical sensor includes a working electrode and a reference electrode that reacts with an analyte to generate a sensor measurement related to a concentration of the analyte in a fluid to which the eye-mountable device is exposed. An example assembly process includes: forming a sacrificial layer on a working substrate; forming a first layer of a bio-compatible material on the sacrificial layer; providing an electronics module on the first layer of the bio-compatible material, forming a second layer of the bio-compatible material to cover the electronics module; and annealing the first and second layers of the bio-compatible material together to form an encapsulated structure having the electronics module fully encapsulated by the bio-compatible material.

Standby Biasing Of Electrochemical Sensor To Reduce Sensor Stabilization Time During Measurement
Inventors: Nathan Pletcher, Brian Otis
Filed Sep 20, 2013
Granted Jan 6, 2015
Abstract:

An eye-mountable device includes an electrochemical sensor embedded in a polymeric material configured for mounting to a surface of an eye. The electrochemical sensor applies a stabilization voltage between a working electrode and a reference electrode to allow the amperometric current to stabilize before powering measurement electronics configured to measure the amperometric current and communicate the measured amperometric current. The electrochemical sensor consumes less power while applying the stabilization voltage than during the measurement. The measurement is initiated in response to receiving a measurement signal at an antenna in the eye-mountable device.

Systems and Methods for Encapsulating Electronics in a Mountable Device
Inventors: James Etzkorn
Filed Sep 20, 2013
Granted Feb 10, 2015
Abstract:

A mountable device includes a bio-compatible structure embedded in a polymer that defines at least one mounting surface. The bio-compatible structure includes an electronic component having electrical contacts, sensor electrodes, and electrical interconnects between the sensor electrodes and the electrical contacts. The bio-compatible structure is fabricated such that it is fully encapsulated by a bio-compatible material, except for the sensor electrodes. In the fabrication, the electronic component is positioned on a first layer of bio-compatible material and a second layer of bio-compatible material is formed over the first layer of bio-compatible material and the electronic component. The electrical contacts are exposed by removing a portion of the second layer, a conductive pattern is formed to define the sensor electrodes and electrical interconnects, and a third layer of bio-compatible material is formed over the conductive pattern. The sensor electrodes are exposed by removing a portion of the third layer.

Systems and Methods for Encapsulating Electronics in a Mountable Device
Inventors: James Etzkorn
Filed Sep 23, 2013
Granted Apr 21, 2015
Abstract:

A mountable device includes a bio-compatible structure embedded in a polymer that defines at least one mounting surface. The bio-compatible structure includes an electronic component having electrical contacts, sensor electrodes, and electrical interconnects between the sensor electrodes and the electrical contacts. The bio-compatible structure is fabricated such that it is fully encapsulated by a bio-compatible material, except for the sensor electrodes. In the fabrication, the electronic component is positioned on a first layer of bio-compatible material and a second layer of bio-compatible material is formed over the first layer of bio-compatible material and the electronic component. The electrical contacts are exposed by removing a portion of the second layer, a conductive pattern is formed to define the sensor electrodes and electrical interconnects, and a third layer of bio-compatible material is formed over the conductive pattern. The sensor electrodes are exposed by removing a portion of the third layer.

Device Having Embedded Antenna
Inventors: James Etzkorn, Stephen O’Driscoll
Filed Sep 24, 2013
Published Dec 18, 2014
Abstract:

Body-mountable devices and methods for embedding a structure in a body-mountable device are described. A body-mountable device includes a transparent polymer and a structure embedded in the transparent polymer. The transparent polymer defines a posterior side and an anterior side of the body-mountable device. The structure has an outer diameter and an inner diameter and includes a sensor configured to detect an analyte and an antenna. The antenna includes a plurality of conductive loops spaced apart from each other between the outer diameter and the inner diameter.

Information Processing Method
Inventors: Ehsan Saeedi, Babak Amirparviz
Filed Sep 24, 2013
Published Mar 27, 2014
Abstract:

Systems, apparatus and methods including a contact lens that facilitates collection and/or processing of information associated with sensed features are provided. In one aspect, a system can include a contact lens and an analysis component external to the contact lens. The contact lens can include: a substrate; and a circuit, disposed on or within the substrate. The circuit can include: a plurality of sensors configured to sense respective features associated with a wearer of the contact lens; and a communication component configured to communicate information indicative of sensed features. The analysis component can be configured to: receive the information indicative of the sensed features; and generate statistical information based, at least, on the information indicative of the sensed features.

Container
Inventors: Jeffrey George Linhardt, Daniel Barrows
Filed Sep 24, 2013
Granted Nov 11, 2014
Abstract:

The present disclosure provides an apparatus including a first chamber containing an eye-mountable device. The apparatus may also include a second chamber containing an aqueous solution. The apparatus may also include a membrane positioned between the first chamber and the second chamber. The membrane may be configured to rupture based on application of a force to the apparatus. The ruptured membrane may allow the aqueous solution to engage with the eye-mountable device. The apparatus may also include a lid to seal one or more of the first chamber and the second chamber.

Method And System For Measuring Pyruvate
Inventors: Huanfen Yao, Zenghe Liu
Filed Oct 17, 2013
Granted Aug 4, 2015
Abstract:

A body-mountable pyruvate sensing device includes an electrochemical sensor embedded in a polymeric material configured for mounting to a surface of an eye. The electrochemical sensor includes a working electrode, a reference electrode, and a reagent localized near the working electrode that selectively reacts with pyruvate. Application of a voltage between the working electrode and the reference electrode causes a current related to a concentration of pyruvate in a fluid to which the electrochemical sensor is exposed; the current is measured by the body-mountable device and wirelessly communicated.

Method And System For Measuring Urea
Inventors: Huanfen Yao, Zenghe Liu
Filed Oct 17, 2013
Published Apr 23, 2015
Abstract:

A body-mountable urea sensing device includes an electrochemical sensor embedded in a polymeric material configured for mounting to a surface of an eye. The electrochemical sensor includes a working electrode, a reference electrode, and a reagent localized near the working electrode that selectively reacts with urea. A potentiometric voltage between the working electrode and the reference electrode is related to a concentration of urea in a fluid to which the electrochemical sensor is exposed; the voltage is measured by the body-mountable device and wirelessly communicated.

Modulation of a Response Signal to Distinguish Between Analyte and Background Signals
Inventors: Jason Thompson, Andrew Conrad, Eric Peeters, Vikram Singh Bajaj, Mark Askew
Filed Oct 23, 2013
Published Apr 23, 2015
Abstract:

A method for modulating a response signal includes introducing functionalized particles into a lumen of subsurface vasculature, wherein the functionalized particles are configured to interact with one or more target analytes present in blood circulating in the subsurface vasculature; and non-invasively detecting the one or more target analytes. A response signal, which may include a background signal and an analyte response signal related to interaction of the functionalized particles with the one or more target analytes, is transmitted from the subsurface vasculature. A modulation configured to alter the response signal such that the analyte response signal is affected differently than the background signal may be applied to a portion of subsurface vasculature. Analyte detection may be achieved by differentiating the analyte response signal from the background.

Non-Invasive Analyte Detection System with Modulation Source
Inventors: Andrew Conrad, Vikram Singh Bajaj, Eric Peeters, Jason Thompson, Mark Askew
Filed Oct 23, 2013
Published Apr 23, 2015
Abstract:

A system for modulating a response signal includes functionalized particles configured to interact with target analytes, a detector configured to detect an analyte response signal transmitted from the body, a modulation source configured to modulate the analyte response signal, and a processor configured to non-invasively detect the one or more target analytes by differentiating the analyte response signal from a background signal, at least in part, based on the modulation. The analyte response signal is related to the interaction of the target analytes with the functionalized particles. In some examples, the system may also include magnetic particles and a magnetic field source sufficient to distribute the magnetic particles into a spatial arrangement in the body. The analyte response signal may be differentiated from the background signal, at least in part, based on modulation of the signals due, at least in part, to the spatial arrangement of the magnetic particles.

Spatial Modulation of Magnetic Particles in Vasculature by External Magnetic Field
Inventors: Eric Peeters, Jason Thompson, Andrew Conrad, Vikram Singh Bajaj, Mark Askew
Filed Oct 23, 2013
Published Apr 23, 2015
Abstract:

A method for modulating a response signal includes introducing functionalized magnetic particles configured to interact with target analytes into the body, applying a magnetic field sufficient to draw the functionalized magnetic particles towards a surface of the lumen of subsurface vasculature closest to an internally or externally applied mask having a spatial arrangement, and detecting a response signal, which includes a background signal and an analyte response signal, transmitted from the subsurface vasculature. The analyte response signal related to interaction of the functionalized magnetic particles with the target analytes and is modulated with respect to the background signal due, at least in part, to the spatial arrangement of the mask. The target analytes may be non-invasively detected by differentiating the analyte response signal from the background signal due, at least in part, to the modulation of the analyte response signal.

Closed Loop Control System based on a Non-Invasive Continuous Sensor
Inventors: Huanfen Yao
Filed Nov 22, 2013
Published May 28, 2015
Abstract:

Methods and systems for controlling analyte levels are described. An example method may include receiving a sensor measurement relating to an eye-mountable device. The method also may include determining an analyte concentration based on the one or more sensor measurements, and comparing the analyte concentration to a target analyte concentration. Based on the comparing, the method further may include providing instructions to a drug delivery device, where the instructions are configured to control a drug delivery rate by the drug delivery device.

Method and System for Measuring Retinal
Inventors: Zenghe Liu, Douglas Weibel
Filed Nov 26, 2013
Granted Aug 11, 2015
Abstract:

A body-mountable retinal sensing device includes an electrochemical sensor embedded in a polymeric material configured for mounting to a body surface, such as a cornea. The electrochemical sensor includes a working electrode, a reference electrode, and a reagent localized near the working electrode that selectively reacts with retinal. Application of a voltage between the working electrode and the reference electrode causes a current related to a concentration of retinal in a fluid to which the electrochemical sensor is exposed. The current is measured by the body-mountable device and wirelessly communicated.

Adjustment of Sensor Sensitivity by Controlling Copolymer Film Thickness Through a Controlled Drying Step
Inventors: Huanfen Yao, Zenghe Liu
Filed Nov 27, 2013
Published May 28, 2015
Abstract:

An analyte sensor and a method for making the analyte sensor are disclosed. In one aspect, the analyte sensor includes a crosslinked, hydrophilic copolymer in contact with a surface of an electrode, and an analyte sensing component embedded within the crosslinked, hydrophilic copolymer. The method of making the analyte sensor includes depositing a precursor mixture containing monomers and an analyte sensing component onto an electrode, exposing the deposited precursor mixture to a controlled environment for a specified period of time, and photopolymerizing the deposited exposed precursor mixture into a copolymer layer in contact with a surface of the electrode. Exposing the deposited precursor mixture to a controlled environment can increase the sensitivity of the sensor by reducing the thickness of the copolymer layer and/or by causing the analyte sensitive component within the copolymer layer to have a non-uniform concentration within the layer.

Formulation and Storage Method to Enhance the Enzyme and Sensor Stabilities
Inventors: Zenghe Liu, Huanfen Yao
Filed Dec 6, 2013
Published Jun 11, 2015
Abstract:

An analyte sensor and method of making are provided. The analyte sensor includes a crosslinked, hydrophilic copolymer in contact with a surface of an electrode; and an analyte sensing component embedded within the crosslinked, hydrophilic copolymer, where the analyte sensing component is surrounded by a buffer having a predetermined buffering component and pH value and where the crosslinked, hydrophilic copolymer includes: backbone chains having first methacrylate-derived units, each having a first hydrophilic side chain; second methacrylate-derived units, each having a second hydrophilic side chain, where the first and second side chains are the same or different; third methacrylate-derived units; and hydrophilic crosslinks between third methacrylate-derived units in different backbone chains. The analyte sensor may be maintained at a humidity level of less than 25% to maintain its performance during storage.

Sensor Membrane with Low Temperature Coefficient
Inventors: Zenghe Liu
Filed Dec 6, 2013
Published Jun 11, 2015
Abstract:

An analyte sensor for measuring physiological parameters, a method for making the analyte sensor, and method of measuring a level of an analyte in a subject are disclosed. In one aspect, the analyte sensor includes a crosslinked, hydrophilic copolymer in contact with a surface of an electrode, and an analyte sensing component embedded within the crosslinked, hydrophilic copolymer. The crosslinked, hydrophilic copolymer has methacrylate-derived backbone chains of first methacrylate-derived units, second methacrylate-derived units and third methacrylate-derived units. The first and second methacrylate-derived units have side chains that can be the same or different, and the third methacrylate-derived units in different backbone chains are connected by hydrophilic crosslinks. The crosslinked, hydrophilic copolymer has an analyte permeability that is substantially temperature independent. The analyte sensor generates signals that are substantially temperature independent over a range of temperatures.

Method of Location Coordination Via Wireless Protocol Between Multiple Devices
Inventors: Sarel Kobus Jooste
Filed Dec 16, 2013
Published Jun 18, 2015
Abstract:

Systems and methods for location coordination between multiple devices are provided. In one example, a method includes receiving by a wearable device, a location signal from a positioning device having location-determining capabilities indicative of the location of the positioning device and calculating a first location of the wearable device based, at least in part, on the location of the positioning device and the strength of the location signal received by the wearable device. The wearable device may include at least one sensor configured to measure at least one physiological parameter.

Contact Lens for Measuring Intraocular Pressure
Inventors: Douglas Weibel, Babak Parviz
Filed Dec 16, 2013
Published Jun 18, 2015
Abstract:

An eye-mountable device for measuring an intraocular pressure is provided. The device may include a transparent polymeric material having a concave surface configured to be removably mounted over a corneal surface of an eye, an antenna, an expandable member, a sensor and control electronics at least partially embedded in the transparent polymeric material. The expandable device is configured to expand and apply a force to the corneal surface and the sensor is configured to detect a resistance to deformation of the cornea in response to the applied force. The resistance to deformation of the cornea in response to the force applied by the expandable member is indicative of the intraocular pressure of the eye.

Noble Metal Surface Treatment Surface Treatment to Improve Admesion in Bio-Compatible Devices
Inventors: Zenghe Liu, Jeffrey G. Linhardt
Filed Dec 17, 2013
Granted Jun 2, 2015
Abstract:

A method involving forming a sacrificial layer on a working substrate; forming a first bio-compatible layer on the sacrificial layer such that the first bio-compatible layer adheres to the sacrificial layer, wherein the first bio-compatible layer defines a first side of a bio-compatible device; forming a conductive pattern on the first bio-compatible layer, the conductive pattern comprising a metal; mounting an electronic component to the conductive pattern; forming a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on the conductive pattern by contacting the conductive pattern with a functionalized sulfur compound or a functionalized selenium compound; forming an adhesion layer on the SAM by contacting the SAM with an adhesion promoter; forming a second bio-compatible layer over the first bio-compatible layer, the electronic component, and the conductive pattern having the adhesion layer, wherein the second bio-compatible layer defines a second side of the bio-compatible device; and removing the sacrificial layer to release the bio-compatible device from the working substrate. The first bio-compatible layer defines a first side of a bio-compatible device. The second bio-compatible layer defines a second side of the bio-compatible device.

Packaging for an Active Contact Lens
Inventors: Daniel Patrick Barrows, Jeffrey George Linhardt
Filed Dec 19, 2013
Published Jun 25, 2015
Abstract:

An eye-mountable device, having an anterior convex side and a posterior concave side, is packaged in a container having a base and a wall. The wall extends from the base and defines an opening of the container. Disposed within the container is a pedestal, which has a first end attached to the base of the container and a second end opposite the first end. The eye-mountable device is mounted on the pedestal such that the posterior concave side contacts the second end of the pedestal and the eye-mountable device is elevated from the base of the container. The opening of the container can be sealed by a lidstock.

Tear Fluid Conductivity Sensor
Inventors: Zenghe Liu, Huanfen Yao
Filed Dec 20, 2013
Published Jun 25, 2015
Abstract:

Disclosed herein is a fluid conductivity sensor that can be used to obtain in-vivo measurements of conductivity of biological fluid samples, for example, to determine osmolarity. The conductivity sensor can be disposed on a substrate that is at least partially embedded within a polymeric material of a body-mountable device. The conductivity sensor can include a frame having a trench formed therein that defines a fluid sample cell. First and second electrodes can be formed on sidewalls of the trench, such that the first and second electrodes are on opposite sides of the fluid sample cell. A controller in the body-mountable device can operate the sensor by applying a voltage to the electrodes and measuring a current through a fluid occupying the fluid sample cell. The body-mountable device may indicate the current measurements wirelessly using an antenna.

Two-layer Analyte Sensor
Inventors: Zenghe Liu, Huanfen Yao
Filed Dec 23, 2013
Published Jun 25, 2015
Abstract:

An analyte sensor and a method for making the analyte sensor are disclosed. In one aspect, the analyte sensor includes a sensing membrane having a crosslinked network with an embedded analyte sensing component. In another aspect, the analyte sensor includes a protective membrane adjacent to the surface of the sensing membrane. The protective membrane can be a crosslinked, hydrophilic copolymer having methacrylate-derived backbone chains of first methacrylate-derived units, second methacrylate-derived units and third methacrylate-derived units. The first and second methacrylate-derived units have hydrophilic side chains, and the third methacrylate-derived units in different backbone chains are connected by hydrophilic crosslinks. A method for making the analyte sensor is also disclosed.

Analyte Sensors with Ethylene Oxide Immunity
Inventors: Zenghe Liu
Filed Dec 23, 2013
Published Jun 25, 2015
Abstract:

Analyte sensors capable of undergoing sterilization with ethylene oxide are provided. The analyte sensors can include one or more polymer membranes having a nucleophilic group.

Sensor Electrodes in a Bio-compatible Device
Inventors: James Etzkorn, Zenghe Liu, Harvey Ho
Filed Dec 23, 2013
Published Jun 25, 2015
Abstract:

A method may involve providing a conductive pattern on a bio-compatible layer. The conductive pattern may include a first conductive layer that comprises a first metal and a second conductive layer that comprises a second metal. The second conductive layer may be over the first conductive layer, and the first metal may be more malleable than the second metal. The method may also include mounting an electrical component to the conductive pattern to provide an electrochemical sensor. The electrochemical sensor may be configured for use in a body-mountable device.

Molded Electronic Structures in Body-Mountable Devices
Inventors: Daniel Patrick Barrows, Zenghe Liu, James Etzkorn, Jeffrey George Linherdt
Filed Dec 23, 2013
Published 20150173602
Jun 25, 2015
Abstract:

Molded electronic structures configured for use in body-mountable devices and methods for embedding molded electronic structures in a body-mountable device are described. An example method may include molding an electronic structure to have first curvature corresponding to a first radius of curvature. The electronic structure may include an antenna, a sensor, and an electronic device. The example method may also include adhering the molded electronic structure to a first polymer layer. The example method may additionally include forming a second polymer layer over the molded electronic structure adhered to the first polymer layer.

Sigma-Delta Analog-to-Digital Converter
Inventors: Alireza Dastgheib, Brian Otis
Filed Dec 30, 2013
Granted May 12, 2015
Abstract:

A potentiostat includes a voltage regulator, a current mirror, a capacitor, a comparator, a current source, and a counter. The voltage regulator maintains a voltage on a working electrode of an electrochemical sensor. The current mirror develops a mirror current that mirrors an input current from the working electrode. The capacitor is alternately charged by the mirror current, causing the capacitor voltage to increase at a rate related to the current’s magnitude, and discharged by a control current, causing the capacitor voltage to decrease. The comparator outputs a waveform that includes upward and downward transitions based on the variations of the capacitor voltage. The current source produces the control current based on the waveform. The counter counts the number of upward or downward transitions in the waveform during a predetermined sampling period to produce a digital output. The digital output is representative of the magnitude of the input current.

Hands-Free Interface
Inventors: Nathan Pletcher, Francis Honore, Andrew Nelson
Filed Dec 30, 2013
Published Jul 2, 2015
Abstract:

A wearable device and external reader is provided for herein. In some embodiments of the present disclosure, the wearable device or the reader is configured to receive a level of radiant energy, detect a change in the received level of radiant energy, determine that the detected change in the received level of radiant energy is indicative of a predetermined pattern of received radiant energy, and responsively operate (or cause to be operated via the external reader) one or more external devices.

Conditional Retrieval
Inventors: Brian Otis, William Biederman, Daniel James Yeager
Filed Dec 30, 2013
Published 20150186701
Jul 2, 2015
Abstract:

In one aspect of the present disclosure, a method is disclosed. The method involves: a reader detecting an eye-mountable device within a wireless communication range of the reader, wherein the eye-mountable device includes a transparent material having a concave mounting surface configured to be removably mounted on a corneal surface; wirelessly retrieving from the detected eye-mountable device a first set of data; using the retrieved first set of data to determine that a condition has been satisfied; and responsive to using the retrieved first set of data to determine that the condition has been satisfied, retrieving from the detected eye-mountable device a second set of data.

Use of a Tag and Reader Antenna for a Simulated Theremin Effect
Inventors: Nathan Pletcher, Brain Otis
Filed Dec 30, 2013
Published Jul 2, 2015
Abstract:

The present disclosure provides methods and apparatuses for providing an audible feedback based on a proximity or a link quality between an external reader and a tag. The external reader transmits power to the tag with a radio frequency electromagnetic signal. The tag may rectify the radio frequency electromagnetic signal and create a rectified voltage. This rectified voltage may be used to power various components of the tag. Once it receives power from the reader, the tag may communicate information back to the external reader. The information communicated back to the reader is communicated by modulating an antenna impedance of the tag. By modulating the impedance, the tag will backscatter radiation transmitted by the reader. The reader is able to create an audio output based on determining the proximity or link quality from the reader to the tag based on the backscatter radiation it receives from the tag.

Methods for Adjusting the Power of an External Reader
Inventors: Nathan Pletcher, Francis Honore, Brian Otis, Andrew Nelson
Filed Dec 30, 2013
Published Jul 2, 2015
Abstract:

Disclosed herein are methods and systems for adjusting the power level of an external reader of an electronic device. The external reader transmits power to the electronic device with a radio frequency electromagnetic signal. The electronic device may rectify the radio frequency electromagnetic signal and create a rectified voltage. The rectified voltage may be positively correlated to the power level transmitted by the external device. The rectified power can be used to power a component of the electronic device, such as a component configured to measure either a voltage or power associated with the rectified voltage. The electronic device may communicate the measured voltage or power back to the external reader. Based on the communicated voltage or power, the external reader may adjust its power level of the transmitted power.

Fabrication Methods for Batteries
Inventors: Zenghe Liu, William Biederman, Brian Otis
Filed Dec 30, 2013
Published Jul 2, 2015
Abstract:

A method may involve forming a first electrode on a structure, where the first electrode defines an anode of a battery, and where the battery is configured to provide electrical power to a circuit located on the structure. The method may further involve forming a second electrode on the structure, where the second electrode defines a cathode of the battery, and where the second electrode is configured to reduce oxygen. And the method may involve embedding the structure in a polymer.

Methods and Apparatus for Positioning a Structure on a Polymer Layer
Inventors: Jeffrey George Linhardt, Daniel Patrick Burrows
Filed Dec 30, 2013
Published Jul 2, 2015
Abstract:

Methods and apparatus for positioning a structure on a polymer layer are described. A method may involve forming a first polymer layer. The method may further involve positioning, by an apparatus, a structure on the first polymer layer, where the apparatus comprises a rod having a first end that supports the structure as the structure is being positioned and a plunger located around the first end of the rod that presses the structure onto the first polymer layer as the structure is being positioned. And the method may involve forming a second polymer layer over the first polymer layer and the structure, where the first polymer layer defines a first side of a body-mountable device and the second polymer layer defines a second side of the body-mountable device opposite the first side.

Battery
Inventors: Ramesh Bhardwaj, James Etzkorn
Filed Jan 24, 2014
Published Jul 30, 2015
Abstract:

A battery includes an electrolyte disposed on a substantially planar substrate. The electrolyte has a first surface extending from the substrate and in contact with a cathode. The electrolyte has a second surface extending from the substrate and in contact with an anode. The second surface is opposite the first surface. The anode and the cathode are non-overlapping. The battery additionally includes a biocompatible protective layer that covers the electrolyte and at least portions of the anode and cathode. The battery can be disposed in an eye-mountable device or other device to power electronics in the device. The battery can be configured to be rechargeable.

Silicon-Vacancy-Doped Nanodiamonds for Molecular and Cellular Imaging
Inventors: Victor Marcel Acosta, Vikram Singh Bajaj, Andrew Homyk, Eric Peeters, Jason Donald Thompson
Filed Feb 21, 2014
Published Aug 27, 2015
Abstract:

An imaging agent for detecting analytes in a biological environment includes functionalized, silicon vacancy center-containing nanodiamonds. Individual nanodiamonds of the imaging agent include at least one silicon vacancy center. The at least one silicon vacancy center can emit light having a wavelength in a narrow band in response to illumination having any wavelength in a wide range of wavelengths. The nanodiamonds are functionalized to selectively interact with an analyte of interest. The nanodiamonds can additionally include other color centers, and the imaging agent can include a plurality of sets of nanodiamonds having detectably unique ratios of silicon vacancy centers to other color centers. The silicon vacancy centers in the nanodiamonds can have a preferred orientation enabling orientation tracking of individual nanodiamonds or other applications. A method for detecting properties of the analyte of interest by interacting with the imaging agent is also provided.

Engineered Particles with Polarization Contrast and Alignment Control for Enhanced Imaging
Inventors: Andrew Homyk, Victor Marcel Acosta, Vikram Singh Bajaj
Filed Feb 24, 2014
Published Aug 27, 2015
Abstract:

An engineered particle for detecting analytes in an environment includes an electromagnetic receiver that is configured to preferentially receive electromagnetic radiation of a specified polarization relative to the orientation of the electromagnetic receiver. The engineered particle additionally includes an energy emitter coupled to the electromagnetic receiver such that a portion of electromagnetic energy received by the electromagnetic receiver is transferred to and emitted by the energy emitter. The engineered particles are functionalized to selectively interact with an analyte. The engineered particle can additionally be configured to align with a directed energy field in the environment. The selective reception of electromagnetic radiation of a specified polarization and/or alignment with a directed energy field can enable orientation tracking of individual engineered particles, imaging in high-noise environments, or other applications. A method for detecting properties of the analyte of interest by interacting with the engineered particle is also provided.

Reference Frequency from Ambient Light Signal
Inventors: Robert Francis Wiser, Daniel James Yeager
Filed Mar 11, 2014
Granted Nov 10, 2015
Abstract:

A system includes an oscillator referenced to a frequency extracted from periodic intensity modulations of incident light. The incident light can be intensity modulated based on the frequency of the AC voltage that powers artificial lighting. The system includes a light-sensitive element configured to generate an output signal indicative of an intensity of incident light and a controller. The controller can receive a first input signal based on the output signal from the light-sensitive element. In the presence of artificial lighting, the first input signal has a frequency based on a reference frequency at which an intensity of light incident on the light-sensitive element periodically varies. The controller can generate a control signal based in part on the reference frequency. The controller can provide the generated control signal to the adjustable oscillator to thereby adjust the oscillator frequency.

Device With Dual Power Sources
Inventors: William James Biederman, Nathan Pletcher, Andrew Nelson, Daniel Yeager
Filed Apr 22, 2014
Published Mar 19, 2015
Abstract:

A wearable device includes a sensor, auxiliary electronics, a primary power supply configured to harvest radio frequency (RF) radiation received from an external reader and use the harvested RF radiation to power the sensor, and an auxiliary power supply configured to harvest energy other than that received from the external reader and use the harvested energy to supply power to the sensor and/or the auxiliary electronics. The external reader may supply less power in response to operation of the auxiliary power supply. Additionally or alternatively, in response to a determination that the auxiliary power supply is unable to supply power, the wearable device may disable all auxiliary electronics but for the sensor. In response to a determination that the primary power supply is unable to supply power but the auxiliary power supply is able to supply power, the wearable device may retain operating parameters in the memory storage unit using the auxiliary power supply.

System for laser ablation surgery
Inventors: Hao Du, Xiaoyu Miao
Filed May 20, 2014
Published Nov 26, 2015
Abstract:

An active tracking system includes an imager configured to image the temperature of a biological tissue and a heating laser configured to heat regions of the biological tissue. The imager locates high-temperature regions of the biological tissue and the heating laser is controlled to point toward target regions of the biological tissue based on the located high-temperature regions. The active tracking system can be used to control a heating laser to continuously heat a target region of a biological tissue even when the target region moves relative to the heating laser. The active tracking system could allow one or more target regions of a biological tissue to be ‘tagged’ with heat by the heating laser and to be tracked even when the one or more target regions move relative to the heating laser. Devices and methods for operating such active tracking systems are also provided.

Needle-Free Blood Draw
Inventors: Eric Peeters, Peter H. Smith
Filed May 28, 2014
Published Dec 3, 2015
Abstract:

A system for needle-free drawing of blood is disclosed. A device can include an evacuated negative-pressure barrel with a membrane sealing an aperture at a distal end, and a housing affixed to a proximal end. An accelerator barrel can be positioned within the negative-pressure barrel and fixed to the housing, with an open proximal end in a chamber in the housing, and an open distal end aligned with the aperture. The chamber can be filled with pressurized gas, and a trigger valve can hydrostatically separate the chamber from the open proximal end of the accelerator barrel. A micro-particle positioned within the accelerator barrel can be accelerated to high speed by an abrupt surge of gas by releasing the trigger valve. The micro-particle can attain enough momentum to pierce the aperture membrane and penetrate adjacent dermal tissue. A resulting micro-emergence of blood can be drawn into the negative pressure barrel.

Adaptive Antenna Tuning Based On Measured Antenna Impedance
Inventors: Stephen O’Driscoll
Filed Jun 12, 2014
Published Dec 17, 2015
Abstract:

A system includes an antenna, an impedance measurement circuit, an impedance tuning circuit, and a controller. The impedance measurement circuit can include a test current source that conveys a test current through the antenna, and a voltage sensor that measure a voltage across the antenna while the test current is conveyed through the antenna. The impedance tuning circuit can be coupled to the antenna leads and can include one or more reactive elements that can be selectively coupled to the antenna, or otherwise adjusted, to effect adjustment of the impedance connected to the antenna. The controller can: (i) use the impedance measurement circuit to obtain a measurement indicative of an impedance of the antenna; (ii) determine an adjustment to the impedance tuning circuit based on the obtained measurement; and (iii) cause the impedance tuning circuit to make the determined adjustment.

Wrist Band Attachment for a Wearable Device
Inventors: Christopher Jones, John Lapetina
Filed Jun 12, 2014
Published Dec 17, 2015
Abstract:

A wearable device includes an electronics module having a first peripheral mating surface extending around a periphery of the electronics module. The first peripheral mating surface includes a first level portion and a second level portion. The second level portion is substantially concentric with the first level portion. The second level portion is configured to meet the first level portion at the periphery of the electronics module to form a step. The wearable device also includes a strap configured for removable placement about an external body surface. The wearable device further includes a holder coupled to the strap. The holder defines a frame configured to receive the electronics module. The frame includes a second peripheral mating surface opposing the first peripheral mating surface of the electronics module. The second peripheral mating surface includes a respective step configured to mate with the step of the first peripheral mating surface.

Three-Dimensional Wireless Charging Coil
Inventors: John Lapetina, Russell Norman Mirov
Filed Jun 13, 2014
Published Dec 17, 2015
Abstract:

Wearable devices are described herein that include a housing, a magnetic shielding, and a coil. The housing includes a first outer surface, a second outer surface opposite the first outer surface, the second outer surface being narrower than the first outer surface and being configured to contact skin at an external body surface, and a chamfer of a given shape between the first outer surface and the second outer surface. The magnetic shielding is disposed in the housing between the first and second outer surfaces. The coil is disposed in the housing and configured to receive energy via a magnetic field. The coil includes coil windings that substantially fit the shape of the chamfer, where the coil windings include a first portion of windings proximate to the magnetic shielding and further include a second portion of windings narrower than the first portion and proximate to the second outer surface.

,a href=”http://appft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PG01&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.html&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=%2220150363617%22.PGNR.&OS=DN/20150363617&RS=DN/20150363617″>System for Aligning a Handheld RFID Reader
Inventors: Francis Albert Honore
Filed Jun 13, 2014
Published Dec 17, 2015
Abstract:

The present disclosure provides methods and apparatuses for providing a visible feedback based on an alignment or a link quality between an external reader and a tag. The external reader transmits power to the tag with a radio frequency electromagnetic signal. The tag may rectify the radio frequency electromagnetic signal and create a rectified voltage. This rectified voltage may be used to power various components of the tag. Once it receives power from the reader, the tag may communicate information back to the external reader. The information communicated back to the reader is communicated by modulating an antenna impedance of the tag. By modulating the impedance, the tag will backscatter radiation transmitted by the reader. The reader is able to create a visual output based on determining the alignment or link quality from the reader to the tag based on the backscatter radiation it receives from the tag.

Zero-Power Wireless Device Programming
Inventors: Daniel James Yeager, Brian Otis, Nathan Pletcher
Filed Jun 13, 2014
Published Dec 17, 2015
Abstract:

The present disclosure provides methods and apparatuses for loading program data on to an unpowered electronic device, such as an RFID tag that includes volatile memory. Initially, the tag is unpowered. Thus, the volatile memory in the tag will not have any stored data. In order to load data into the memory of the tag, a reader can power the tag wirelessly. The reader includes an antenna configured to transmit electromagnetic radiation and receive backscatter electromagnetic radiation. The reader also includes a processing unit. The processing unit is configured to analyze the backscatter electromagnetic radiation. The processing unit may analyze the backscatter radiation to determine a supply voltage induced in the tag. In response to the induced voltage being greater than a threshold, the processing unit may alter the transmitted electromagnetic radiation to communicate tag data.

Conditional Storage
Inventors: Brian Otis, Daniel James Yeager
Filed Jun 13, 2014
Published Dec 17, 2015
Abstract:

In one aspect of the present disclosure, a method involves obtaining, by a body-mountable device, sensor data, where the body-mountable device includes a data storage. The method further involves making a determination that each condition in a condition set has been satisfied. In addition, the method involves responsive to making the determination that each condition in the condition set has been satisfied, storing the obtained sensor data in the data storage.

Multipurpose contacts for delivering electro-haptic feedback to a wearer
Inventors: John Lapetina, Russell Norman Mirov
Filed Jun 13, 2014
Published Dec 17, 2015

Abstract:

Wearable devices are described herein including a housing and a mount configured to mount the housing to an external surface of a wearer. The wearable devices further include first and second electrical contacts protruding from the housing and configured such that the electrical contacts can be used to measure a Galvanic skin resistance of skin proximate to the electrical contacts when the wearable device is mounted to the external surface of the wearer. The electrical contacts are additionally configured to deliver an electro-haptic stimulus to skin proximate to the electrical contacts when the wearable device is mounted to the external surface of the wearer. Electro-haptic stimulus could be delivered to a wearer to indicate information to the wearer, including information about a health or activity state of the wearer, about communications received by the wearable device, and about alerts generated by the wearable device.

Contact Lenses
Inventors: Babak Parviz, Brian Otis
Filed Jun 13, 2014
Granted Jun 2, 2015
Abstract:

Apparatus, systems and methods for facilitating iris-scanning contact lenses and/or biometric identification employing iris scanning contact lenses are provided. In one implementation, the contact lens can include: a transparent substrate formed to cover at least a portion of an iris of an eye; and a circuit. The circuit can include: one or more light sensors disposed on or within the transparent substrate and that detects light filtered through the iris and incident on the one or more light sensors; readout circuitry, operably coupled to the one or more light sensors, that outputs information indicative of the light filtered through the iris and incident on the one or more light sensors; and a power component that supplies power to the readout circuitry. In various implementations, the contact lens can be employed in systems and/or methods associated with authentication and identification.

Method for using nanodiamonds to detect nearby magnetic nanoparticles
Inventors: Victor Marcel Acosta, Vikram Singh Bajaj, Jason Donald Thompson, Eric Peeters
Filed Jun 27, 2014
Published Dec 31, 2015
Abstract:

An imaging agent for detecting analytes in an environment includes functionalized nanodiamonds and functionalized magnetic particles that can selectively interact with an analyte. Each functionalized nanodiamond contains at least one color center configured emit light in response to illumination. At least one property of the light emitted by the color centers is related to the proximity of the functionalized magnetic particles to the color centers. This property can be detected to determine that the functionalized nanodiamonds are proximate to the functionalized magnetic particles, to determine that the functionalized nanodiamonds and the functionalized magnetic particles are interacting with the analyte, or other applications. Devices and methods for detecting properties of the analyte by interacting with the functionalized nanodiamonds and functionalized magnetic particles are also provided.

Methods for reducing noise in optical biological sensors
Inventors: Jason Donald Thompson, Vikram Singh Bajaj, Victor Marcel Acosta, Tamara Lynn Troy
Filed Jun 30, 2014
Published Dec 31, 2015
Abstract:

Optical measurement of physiological parameters with wearable devices often includes measuring signals in the presence of significant noise sources. These noise sources include, but are not limited to, noise associated with: variable optical coupling to skin or tissue, variations in tissue optical properties with time due to changes in humidity, temperature, hydration, variations in tissue optical properties between individuals, variable coupling of ambient light sources into detectors, and instrument and detector noise, including electrical noise, radio frequency or magnetic interference, or noise caused by mechanical movement of the detector or its components. The present disclosure includes devices and methods configured to produce representations of the raw data in which noise, broadly defined, is separated from the data of interest. The disclosed devices and methods may include subtracting or calibrating out these noise sources and other spurious fluctuations in wearable devices with optical sensors.

Manufacturing Method for Wireless Devices
Inventors: James Etzkorn
Filed Jul 4, 2014
Published Jan 7, 2016
Abstract:

A manufacturing method for a wireless device may involve placing a plurality of antennas on a plastic layer, wherein each of the antennas comprises one or more conductive loops positioned within an inner diameter and an outer diameter; placing a plurality of sensor chips on the plastic layer such that each sensor chip is interconnected to a respective antenna on the plastic layer and is positioned within the inner diameter and outer diameter of the respective antenna, wherein each sensor chip has a respective sensor facing away from the plastic layer and has respective electrical contacts interconnected with the respective antenna; and providing an encapsulation layer over the plurality of antennas and the plurality of sensor chips on the plastic layer.

User Control of Data De-Idenfication
Inventors: Russell Norman Mirov, Brian Taewon Park
Filed Jul 8, 2014
Published Jan 14, 2016
Abstract:

A method for transmitting, storing and sharing data collected by a wearable device is provided. In one example, data related to one or more measurements obtained by the wearable device configured to be mounted to a body surface of a wearer is received in addition to an input by the wearer of the device. The input selects at least one identification rule that determines whether or how the wearer is identified in connection with the data from the wearable device. The data is stored in a database based, at least in part, on the at least one identification rule. The input from the wearer may also select at least one permission rule that determines whether third parties can access the data from the wearable device. A third party may be required to provide payment for access to or use of the data according to the at least one permission rule.

Positioning a wearable device for data collection
Inventors: Andrew Homyk, Jason Donald Thompson, Russell Norman Mirov, Mark West Askew
Filed Jul 11, 2014
Published Jan 14, 2016
Abstract:

Wearable devices are described herein including at least two photodetectors and a mount configured to mount the at least two photodetectors to an external surface of a wearer. The at least two photodetectors are configured to detect alignment between the wearable device and a target on or in the body of the wearer (e.g., to detect the location of vasculature within the body of the wearer relative to the at least two photodetectors). Alignment of the at least two photodetectors relative to the target could enable detection of one or more physiological properties of the wearer. For example, the wearable device could include a sensor configured to detect a property of the target when the sensor is above the target, and alignment of the target relative to the at least two photodetectors could include the sensor being located above the target.

Context Discrimination Using Ambient Light Signal
Inventors: Russell Norman Mirov, Mark Murphy
Filed Jul 16, 2014
Published Jan 21, 2016
Abstract:

A system is configured to discriminate amongst different environments based in part on characteristics of ambient light. Ambient light intensity is measured using a light-sensitive element configured to generate an output signal indicative of an intensity of light incident on the light-sensitive element. A controller is configured to obtain a set of ambient light measurements using the light-sensitive element, and determine that the measurements correspond to a particular ambient light profile. The particular ambient light profile can be one of multiple ambient light profiles that each correspond to a different environment and/or context.

Data Tagging
Inventors: David Andrew Gibson, Mark Murphy
Filed Jul 17, 2014
Published Jan 21, 2016
Abstract:

A method for tagging and organizing data is provided. In one example, physiological data detected from a wearer of a wearable device is received and associated with a tag based, at least in art, on an input by the wearer. The input may be a state of the wearer, such as physical or mental state, or a rule. The collected physiological data may be organized based on the tag and, in some examples, on other types of received data, such as a wearer’s personal data. In other example methods, data may be stored in a database based on one or more tags associated with the data.

In-vitro contact lens testing
Inventors: Zenghe Liu, James Etzkorn
Filed Jul 23, 2014
Published Nov 6, 2014
Abstract:

Contact lens testing apparatuses and method for testing contact lenses for analytes are presented. In an aspect, a device is provided that includes a housing configured to hold one or more contact lenses, and a testing compartment provided within the housing and comprising a reagent, the reagent configured to facilitate a chemical reaction in response to the existence of a predetermined biomarker disposed on or within a contact lens placed in the testing compartment, wherein the chemical reaction produces a known result related to state information of an individual from which the biomarker was generated.

Data Permission Management for Wearable Devices
Inventors: Sarel Kobus Jooste, David Andrew Gibson
Filed Jul 30, 2014
Published Feb 4, 2016
Abstract:

Methods and apparatus for providing rule-based access to data stored on wearable devices are provided. A wearable computing device can store data that includes data about a wearer of the wearable computing device. The wearable computing device can receive a request for a portion of the stored data. The wearable computing device can determine a designated role associated with the request for the portion of the stored data. The wearable computing device can determine one or more rules regarding access to the portion of the stored data based on the designated role. The wearable computing device can determine a response to the request for the portion of the stored data by at least: determining whether the request is validated by at least applying the one or more rules to the request, and after determining that the request is validated, providing the requested portion of the stored data.

Devices and Methods for a Contact Lens with an Outward Facing Light Source
Inventors: Brian Otis, Robert Francis Wiser, Andrew Nelson
Filed Aug 5, 2014
Published Jan 1, 2015
Abstract:

A body-mountable device can include a transparent material and a substrate at least partially embedded in the transparent material. The transparent material can have a mounting surface and a surface opposite the mounting surface. A light source can be disposed on the substrate and configured to emit light through the surface opposite the mounting surface. The light source can be controlled by circuitry disposed on the substrate. The circuitry can be configured to receive modulation instructions and modulate the light emitted by the light source based on the modulation instructions.

Sharing a single electrode between skin resistance and capacitance measurements
Inventors: Patrick Lin Wheeler, Russell Norman Mirov
Filed Aug 6, 2014
Published Feb 11, 2016
Abstract:

Wearable devices are described herein including a housing and a mount configured to mount the housing to an external surface of a wearer. The wearable devices further include first and second electrical contacts protruding from the housing and configured such that the electrical contacts can be used to measure a Galvanic skin resistance of skin proximate to the electrical contacts when the wearable device is mounted to the external surface of the wearer. The electrical contacts are additionally configured to measure a capacitance between electrical contacts. The measured capacitance between the electrical contacts could be related to a capacitance of skin proximate to the electrical contacts when the wearable device is mounted to the external surface of the wearer. The wearable devices further include an electronically switched capacitor connected between the electrical contacts that can be operated to enable the Galvanic skin resistance and capacitance measurements described above.

Passive Detection of Pulse
Inventors: Brian Otis, Robert Francis Wiser
Filed
Aug 29, 2014
Published Mar 3, 2016
Abstract:

A body-mountable light sensing device includes a photodiode configured to receive light from a portion of subsurface vasculature and electronics configured to operate the photodiode to measure the received light. The electronics include a photodiode voltage source configured to reverse bias the photodiode, a current mirror, and a sigma-delta modulator configured to generate a digital output related to the received light and having a high resolution while using low power. The digital output could be used to determine a pulse rate or other properties of blood in the portion of subsurface vasculature by detecting absorption of ambient light by blood in the portion of subsurface vasculature. Components of the body-mountable device could be embedded in a polymeric material configured for mounting to a surface of an eye. The digital output and/or related information could be wirelessly communicated by the body-mountable device.

Channel Formation
Inventors: Daniel Patrick Barrows, James Etzkorn
Filed
Sep 4, 2014
Published Mar 10, 2016
Abstract:

A body-mountable device may be formed of a polymeric material. A molding form can define a cavity and polymeric material can be formed using the mold to create a device shaped in accordance with the cavity. Electronics disposed on a substrate can be encapsulated within the polymeric material by forming a first layer of polymeric material, positioning the substrate on the first layer, and then forming a second layer of polymeric material over the substrate. A channel can expose a sensor disposed on the substrate. The channel may be formed while molding the second layer of polymeric material over the substrate. The molding form can include a protrusion that extends toward the sensor. A sacrificial sealant material can be applied to the sensor or the protrusion to create a seal between the protrusion and the sensor. The polymeric material forms around the sealed protrusion to create the channel.

Sealed Solid State Battery
Inventors: Ramesh C. Bhardwaj, William James Biederman, James Etzkorn, Brian Otis
Filed Oct 1, 2014
Published Feb 18, 2016
Abstract:

An electrochemical battery can include electrodes (a cathode and an electrode) arranged on respective surfaces of an electrolyte. The electrodes and electrolyte can each be solid state films that can be layered on top of one another to create a stacked structure disposed on a substrate. A polymeric sealant material can be applied over and around the battery stack and a moisture barrier can be formed over the sealant material to thereby prevent moisture from reaching the battery. Conductive terminals electrically coupled to the cathode and anode, respectively, can be formed on a second side of the substrate. As such, the battery can be flip-chip mounted to corresponding mounting pads and thereby connected to other electronics that can receive power from the battery.

Encapsulated Electronics
Inventors: James Etzkorn, Babak Amirparviz
Filed Oct 20, 2014
Published Feb 5, 2015
Abstract:

An eye-mountable device includes an electrochemical sensor embedded in a polymeric material configured for mounting to a surface of an eye. The electrochemical sensor includes a working electrode and a reference electrode that reacts with an analyte to generate a sensor measurement related to a concentration of the analyte in a fluid to which the eye-mountable device is exposed. An example assembly process includes: forming a sacrificial layer on a working substrate; forming a first layer of a bio-compatible material on the sacrificial layer; providing an electronics module on the first layer of the bio-compatible material, forming a second layer of the bio-compatible material to cover the electronics module; and annealing the first and second layers of the bio-compatible material together to form an encapsulated structure having the electronics module fully encapsulated by the bio-compatible material.

Assembly Bonding
Inventors: James Etzkorn
Filed Apr 3, 2015
Published Jul 30, 2015
Abstract:

A contact lens having a thin silicon chip integrated therein is provided along with methods for assembling the silicon chip within the contact lens. In an aspect, a method includes creating a plurality of lens contact pads on a lens substrate and creating a plurality of chip contact pads on a chip. The method further involves applying assembly bonding material to the each of the plurality of lens contact pads or chip contact pads, aligning the plurality of lens contact pads with the plurality of chip contact pads, bonding the chip to the lens substrate via the assembly bonding material using flip chip bonding, and forming a contact lens with the lens substrate.

Sigma-Delta Analog-to-Digital Converter
Inventors: Alireza Dastgheib, Brian Otis
Filed Apr 16, 2015
Published Aug 13, 2015
Abstract:

A potentiostat includes a voltage regulator, a current mirror, a capacitor, a comparator, a current source, and a counter. The voltage regulator maintains a voltage on a working electrode of an electrochemical sensor. The current mirror develops a mirror current that mirrors an input current from the working electrode. The capacitor is alternately charged by the mirror current, causing the capacitor voltage to increase at a rate related to the current’s magnitude, and discharged by a control current, causing the capacitor voltage to decrease. The comparator outputs a waveform that includes upward and downward transitions based on the variations of the capacitor voltage. The current source produces the control current based on the waveform. The counter counts the number of upward or downward transitions in the waveform during a predetermined sampling period to produce a digital output. The digital output is representative of the magnitude of the input current.

Electrochemical Sensor Chip
Inventors: James Etzkorn
Filed Jul 7, 2014
Published Jan 7, 2016
Abstract:

An electrochemical sensor is disposed on a sensor substrate suitable for flip-chip mounting to another substrate. The electrochemical sensor can be fabricated in bulk by patterning sets of electrodes on a common substrate with vias that electrically couple each electrode to a conductive pad on the opposite side of the substrate. The substrate with electrodes thereon can then be diced and the individual electrochemical sensors can be flip-chip mounted in a body-mountable device in which the sensor can be used to obtain analyte concentrations. As a result, fabrication of the electrochemical sensor electrodes can be isolated from fabrication of the other electronics in the device, which can facilitate efficient fabrication of the sensor and allows for other electronics to be fabricated without restrictions associated with the electrode fabrication.

Reader Communication with Contact Lens Sensors and Display Device
Inventors: Frank Honoré, Brian Otis, Andrew Nelson
Filed Nov 10, 2014
Published Mar 5, 2015
Abstract:

A reader for communicating with both an eye-mountable device and a display device is provided. The reader can transmit radio frequency power to a tag that is part of the eye-mountable device. The reader can communicates with the tag using a first protocol. Communicating with the tag can include having the reader request data from the tag and receive the requested data from the tag. The reader can process the received data. The reader can store the processed data. The reader can communicates with the display device using a second protocol, where the first and second protocols can differ. Communicating with the display device can include having the reader transmit the stored data to the display device. The display device can receive the transmitted data, process the transmitted data, and generate one or more displays including the transmitted and/or processed data.

In-Situ Tear Sample Colllection and Testing Using a Contact Lens
Inventors: Zenghe Liu, James Etzkorn
Filed Sep 18, 2013
Published Jul 10, 2014
Abstract:

Apparatus, systems and methods employing contact lenses having one or more sensor that sense an analyte in tear fluid and one or more recesses that collect the tear fluid. In some aspects, a contact lens includes a substrate that forms at least part of a body of the contact lens and a recess formed within the substrate configured to collect tear fluid when the contact lens is worn. The contact lens further includes at least one sensor disposed within the substrate configured to sense presence of an analyte in the collected tear fluid.

System and Method for Stablizing Unintentional Muscle Movements
Inventors: Anupam PATHAK
Filed Sep 30, 2011
Published Feb 20, 2014
Abstract:

A system and method for stabilizing a position of an object are disclosed. The system comprises a housing that includes a subsystem. The system also includes an attachment arm coupled to the housing. At least one first sensor is placed along the attachment arm, wherein the attachment arm is configured to receive the object thereto. In response to an unintentional muscle movement by a user that adversely affects the motion of the object, the subsystem stabilizes the position of the object. The method comprises providing a subsystem within a housing and coupling an attachment arm to the housing. The method also includes placing at least one first sensor along the attachment arm, wherein the attachment arm is configured to receive the object thereto. In response to an unintentional muscle movement by a user that adversely affects the motion of the object, the subsystem stabilizes the position of the object.

Sensing System
Inventors: Nathan Pletcher, Babak Amirparviz, Eric Teller
Filed Sep 17, 2012
Published Mar 20, 2014
Abstract:

This disclosure relates to systems and/or methods for detection of eye blinking using an active contact lens with multiple sensors and detecting orientation of the active contact lens.

Stablizing Unintentional Muscle Mopvements
Inventors: Anupam PATHAK
Filed Jul 3, 2013
Published Nov 7, 2013
Abstract:

A system and method for stabilizing unintentional muscle movements are disclosed. In a first aspect, a non-contact sensing system comprises a stabilization unit, at least one non-contact position sensor coupled to the stabilization unit, and a processing unit coupled to the at least one non-contact position sensor, wherein the processing unit transmits motion commands to the stabilization unit to cancel unintentional muscle movements. In a second aspect, the method comprises a processing unit of a non-contact sensing system receiving position data of a stabilization unit that is detected by at least one non-contact position sensor and filtering the position data to identify the unintentional muscle movements. The method includes modeling the position data to create a system model and determining motor commands based upon the system model to cancel the unintentional muscle movements.

Optical Communication for Body Mountable Devices
Inventors: Brian Otis, Travis Deyle
Filed Jun 13, 2014
Published Dec 17, 2015
Abstract:

A system includes one or more optical emitters, a transceiver, and a body mountable device. The optical emitters emit light and are configured to be used in luminaires. The transceiver is coupled to receive input data from a data network and coupled to selectively modulate the optical emitters to transmit the optical data. Selectively modulating the optical emitters is in response to the input data. The body mountable device includes a photodetector coupled to receive the optical data and processing circuitry configured to initiate an action in response to receiving the optical data from the photodetector.

Capacitive Gaze Tracking for Auto-Accomodation in a Contact Lens
Inventors: William J. Biederman, Brian Otis, Daniel J. Yeager, Nathan Pletcher
Filed Dec 31, 2014
Published Dec 17, 2015
Abstract:

A method of capacitive gaze detection for accommodation includes monitoring at least one capacitance value of a capacitive sensor system disposed within a contact lens. The at least one capacitance value varies in response to changes in a gazing direction of a cornea upon which the contact lens is removeably mounted. The changes in the gazing direction of the cornea are detected in real-time based upon changes in the at least one capacitance value. An accommodation actuator disposed within the contact lens is manipulated to automatically change an optical power of the contact lens in response to detecting changes in the gazing direction.

Contact Lens with Capacitive Gaze Tracking
Inventors: Daniel J. Yeager, William J. Biederman, Brian Otis, Nathan Pletcher
Filed Dec 31, 2014
Published Dec 17, 2015
Abstract:

An eye-mountable device includes an enclosure material, a capacitive sensor system, and a controller. The enclosure material has a concave surface and a convex surface. The concave surface is configured to be removeably mounted over a cornea and the convex surface is configured to be compatible with eyelid motion when the concave surface is so mounted. The capacitive sensor system is disposed within the enclosure material. The capacitive sensor system has at least one capacitance value that varies with changes in a gazing direction of the cornea. The controller is disposed within the enclosure material and electrically connected to the capacitive sensor system. The controller is configured to measure the capacitance value of the capacitive sensor system to detect the changes in the gazing direction.

Adapter to Attach Implements to an Actively Controlled Human Tremor Cancellation Platform
Inventors: Anupam J. Pathak
Filed Apr 8, 2015
Published Oct 22, 2015
Abstract:

Embodiments are disclosed of an adapter for coupling an implement to a tremor cancellation platform. The adapter includes a first section attached to the tremor cancellation platform, the first section comprising an elongated tapered key having a base and a tip, the base having a greater transverse dimension than the tip and the base being attached to the tremor cancellation platform. The adapter also includes a second section coupled to the implement, the second section including a tapered cavity sized and shaped to receive the first section, and a latch to lock the second section onto the first section.

Power Delivery for Accomodation by an Eye-Mountable Device
Inventors: William J. Biederman
Filed Apr 23, 2015
Published Dec 17, 2015
Abstract:

Techniques and mechanisms to power automatic accommodation by an eye-mountable device. In an embodiment, the eye-mountable device includes an accommodation actuator to change an optical strength of the eye-mountable device. Control logic of the eye-mountable device is to transition a supply voltage between different levels to drive operation of the accommodation actuator, including the control logic to perform a step-wise transition of the supply voltage from a first voltage level to a second voltage level. In another embodiment, the control logic includes a bidirectional direct current to direct current (DC-DC) converter. During the step-wise transition of the supply voltage, the bidirectional DC-DC converter is configured to aid in recharging a battery of the eye-mountable device with charge from the accommodation actuator.

Flexable Conductor for Use withing a Contact Lens
Inventors: Zenghe Liu, Jeffrey G. Linhardt, Scott B. Kennedy
Filed Apr 30, 2015
Published Dec 17, 2015
Abstract:

An eye-mountable device includes a flexible lens enclosure, anterior and posterior flexible conductive electrodes, and an accommodation actuator element. The flexible lens enclosure includes anterior and posterior layers that are sealed together. The anterior flexible conductive electrode is disposed within the flexible enclosure and across a center region of the flexible lens enclosure on a concave side of the anterior layer. The posterior flexible conductive electrode is disposed within the flexible enclosure and across the center region on a convex side of the posterior layer. The accommodation actuator element is disposed between the first and second flexible conductive electrodes. The anterior and posterior flexible conductive electrodes are transparent and electrically manipulate the accommodation actuator element.

Method, Device and System for Accessing an Eye-Mountable Device with a User Interface
Inventors: Nathan Pletcher, Robert F. Wiser, Daniel J. Yeager, Shung-neng Lee
Filed May 1, 2015
Published Dec 17, 2015
Abstract:

Techniques and mechanisms for providing access to an accommodation-capable eye-mountable device via a user interface of an auxiliary device. In an embodiment, the user interface provides prompts for a user of the eye-mountable device to perform various viewing actions, where the eye-mountable device receives from the auxiliary device communications indicating respective times of the viewing actions. Based on the communications, the eye-mountable device generates configuration information indicating a correspondence of respective states of the eye-mountable device to respective characteristics of the viewing actions. In another embodiment, operational modes of the eye-mountable device are defined based on the configuration information.

Eye-Mountable Device To Provide Automatic Accomodation and Method of Making Same
Inventors: James Etzkorn, Jeffrey G. Linhardt, Brian Otis
Filed May 12, 2015
Published Dec 17, 2015
Abstract:

Techniques and mechanisms for providing an eye-mountable device including an accommodation actuator. In an embodiment, fabrication of the eye-mountable device includes sealing layers of enclosure material to form a lens enclosure comprising a pinch-off region where the layers of enclosure material physically contact one another. The accommodation actuator includes a liquid crystal layer disposed between the layers of enclosure material in a central region around which the pinch-off region extends. In another embodiment, electrodes are disposed in the central region each between the liquid crystal layer and a respective one of the layers of enclosure material. The liquid crystal layer isolates the electrodes from one another in the central region.

Microelectrodes in an Ophthalmic Electrochemical Sensor
Inventors: Zenghe Liu
Filed May 15, 2015
Published Sep 3, 2015
Abstract:

An eye-mountable device includes an electrochemical sensor embedded in a polymeric material configured for mounting in front of a surface of an eye. The electrochemical sensor includes a working electrode, a reference electrode, and a reagent that selectively reacts with an analyte to generate a sensor measurement related to a concentration of the analyte in a fluid to which the eye-mountable device is exposed. The working electrode can have at least one dimension less than 25 micrometers. The reference electrode can have an area at least five times greater than an area of the working electrode. A portion of the polymeric material can surround the working electrode and the reference electrode such that an electrical current conveyed between the working electrode and the reference electrode is passed through the at least partially surrounding portion of the transparent polymeric material.

Failsafe Operation of Eye-Mountable Device
Inventors: Shungneng Lee, Jennifer Han, Brian Otis, Daniel James Yeager, Nathan Pletcher
Filed Jun 11, 2015
Published Dec 17, 2015
Abstract:

An embodiment of an eye-mountable device includes an optical lens; an accommodation actuator to provide vision accommodation for the optical lens; a controller including an accommodation logic to select one of a plurality of vision accommodation states for the device, the plurality of vision accommodation states including at least a failsafe focal distance; and a failsafe subsystem including a system health detector, the system health detector to monitor for one or more operational indicators for the device, wherein the failsafe subsystem is to cause the device to transition to a failsafe mode upon the failsafe subsystem identifying a failure condition for the device, the failsafe mode includes setting the vision accommodation state to be the failsafe focal distance.

Apparatus, System and Method For Gaze Tracking Based on Photodection by an Eye-Mountable Device
Inventors: Jennifer Han, Nathan Pletcher, Robert Francis Wiser, Brian Otis
Filed Jun 11, 2015
Published Dec 17, 2015
Abstract:

Techniques and mechanisms for determining a direction of gaze by a user of an eye-mountable device. In an embodiment, the eye-mountable device includes a first circuit and a second circuit, each comprising a respective photodiode. The second circuit is configured to provide a light response profile that is more linear than a light response profile provided by the first circuit. Light sensing by the first circuit results in generation of a first signal indicating a level of ambient light in a surrounding environment. Other light sensing by the second circuit results in a second signal being generated. A direction of gaze by a cornea of the user is detected based at least in part on the first signal and the second signal. In another embodiment, the first signal is provided to configure the second circuit.

Symmetrically Arranged Sensor Electrodes in an Ophthalmic Electrochemical Sensor
Inventors: James Etzkorn, Zenghe Liu
Filed Jun 17, 2015
Published Oct 8, 2015
Abstract:

An eye-mountable device includes an electrochemical sensor embedded in a polymeric material configured for mounting to a surface of an eye. The electrochemical sensor includes a working electrode, a reference electrode, and a reagent that selectively reacts with an analyte to generate a sensor measurement related to a concentration of the analyte in a fluid to which the eye-mountable device is exposed. The working electrode can have a first side edge and a second side edge. The reference electrode can be situated such that at least a portion of the first and second side edges of the working electrode are adjacent respective sections of the reference electrode.

Facilitation of Contact Lenses with Capacitive Sensors
Inventors: Nathan Pletcher, Brian Otis
Filed Jul 26, 2012
Granted Oct 14, 2014
Abstract:

Apparatus, systems and methods employing contact lens with capacitive sensors are provided. In some aspects, a contact lens includes: a substrate; a capacitive sensor, disposed on or within the substrate, that senses a capacitance on the contact lens; and a circuit disposed on or within the substrate. In some aspects, the circuit can include a capacitance analysis component that determines a condition of an eyelid associated with the eye over which the contact lens is disposed and/or a parameter associated with the eye over which the contact lens is disposed. In some aspects, the condition can be a blink of an eyelid. In some aspects, the parameter can be at least one of a pressure of an object in proximity to the contact lens, a thickness or type of a layer of material disposed on or within the contact lens or a composition of material on the contact lens.

Facilitation of Contact Lenses with Capacitive Sensors
Inventors: Brian Otis, Nathan Pletcher
Filed Sep 23, 2013
Granted Oct 21, 2014
Abstract:

Apparatus, systems and methods employing contact lens with capacitive sensors are provided. In some aspects, a contact lens includes: a substrate; a capacitive sensor, disposed on or within the substrate, that senses a capacitance on the contact lens; and a circuit disposed on or within the substrate. In some aspects, the circuit can include a capacitance analysis component that determines a condition of an eyelid associated with the eye over which the contact lens is disposed and/or a parameter associated with the eye over which the contact lens is disposed. In some aspects, the condition can be a blink of an eyelid. In some aspects, the parameter can be at least one of a pressure of an object in proximity to the contact lens, a thickness or type of a layer of material disposed on or within the contact lens or a composition of material on the contact lens.

Symmetrically Arranged Sensor Electrodes in an Ophthalmic Electrochemical Sensor
Inventors: James Etzkorn, Zenghe Liu
Filed Sep 23, 2013
Granted Nov 4, 2014
Abstract:

An eye-mountable device includes an electrochemical sensor embedded in a polymeric material configured for mounting to a surface of an eye. The electrochemical sensor includes a working electrode, a reference electrode, and a reagent that selectively reacts with an analyte to generate a sensor measurement related to a concentration of the analyte in a fluid to which the eye-mountable device is exposed. The working electrode can have a first side edge and a second side edge. The reference electrode can be situated such that at least a portion of the first and second side edges of the working electrode are adjacent respective sections of the reference electrode.

Microelectrodes In An Ophthalmic Electrochemical Sensor
Inventors: Zenghe Liu
Filed Oct 12, 2012
Granted Feb 24, 2015
Abstract:

An eye-mountable device includes an electrochemical sensor embedded in a polymeric material configured for mounting to a surface of an eye. The electrochemical sensor includes a working electrode, a reference electrode, and a reagent that selectively reacts with an analyte to generate a sensor measurement related to a concentration of the analyte in a fluid to which the eye-mountable device is exposed. The working electrode can have at least one dimension less than 25 micrometers. The reference electrode can have an area at least five times greater than an area of the working electrode. A portion of the polymeric material can surround the working electrode and the reference electrode such that an electrical current conveyed between the working electrode and the reference electrode is passed through the at least partially surrounding portion of the transparent polymeric material.

Microelectrodes In An Ophthalmic Electrochemical Sensor
Inventors: Zenghe Liu
Filed Sep 19, 2013
Granted Jun 16, 2015
Abstract:

An eye-mountable device includes an electrochemical sensor embedded in a polymeric material configured for mounting to a surface of an eye. The electrochemical sensor includes a working electrode, a reference electrode, and a reagent that selectively reacts with an analyte to generate a sensor measurement related to a concentration of the analyte in a fluid to which the eye-mountable device is exposed. The working electrode can have at least one dimension less than 25 micrometers. The reference electrode can have an area at least five times greater than an area of the working electrode. A portion of the polymeric material can surround the working electrode and the reference electrode such that an electrical current conveyed between the working electrode and the reference electrode is passed through the at least partially surrounding portion of the transparent polymeric material.

Input Detection System
Inventors: Harvey Ho, Olivia Hatalsky, Nathan Pletcher
Filed Sep 28, 2012
Granted Jun 23, 2015
Abstract:

Systems for determining an individual’s current focal plane by measuring parameters associated with binocular vision focusing using one or two contact lenses are provided. In an aspect, a system includes a first contact lens and a second contact lens respectively configured to be worn over first and second eyes of an individual. The first contact lens and the second contact lens respectively include first and second substrates, and first and second circuits respectively disposed on or within the first and second substrates and configured to respectively generate first data related to a focal trajectory of the first eye and second data related to a focal trajectory of the second eye, wherein the first circuit employs the second contact lens to generate the first data and the second circuit employs the first contact lens to generate the second data.

Symmetrically Arranged Sensor Electrodes in an Ophthalmic Electrochemical Sensor
Inventors: James Etzkorn, Zenghe Liu
Filed Jun 17, 2013
Granted Jul 21, 2015
Abstract:

An eye-mountable device includes an electrochemical sensor embedded in a polymeric material configured for mounting to a surface of an eye. The electrochemical sensor includes a working electrode, a reference electrode, and a reagent that selectively reacts with an analyte to generate a sensor measurement related to a concentration of the analyte in a fluid to which the eye-mountable device is exposed. The working electrode can have a first side edge and a second side edge. The reference electrode can be situated such that at least a portion of the first and second side edges of the working electrode are adjacent respective sections of the reference electrode.

Input System
Inventors: Xiaoyu Miao, Harvey Ho, Nathan Pletcher
Filed Aug 24, 2012
Granted Aug 18, 2015
Abstract:

Apparatus, systems and methods that facilitate eye tracking using a contact lens are provided. In some aspects, the contact lens includes: a substrate; an antenna, disposed on or within the substrate, that harvests radio frequency energy; an integrated circuit, disposed on or within the substrate, that receives power from the antenna; and electrical components, disposed on or within the substrate, that determine motion of an eye over which the contact lens is placed, and perform tracking of the eye based, at least, on the motion. For example, the motion of the eye can be determined based on telemetry components fabricated on or within a substrate of the contact lens. In some aspects, the contact lens can include light emitters that radiate light in a direction of the gaze of the wearer of the contact lens. A heads-up device can perform eye tracking based on the direction of the light beams.

In-Situ Tear Sample Collection And Testing Using a Contact Lens
Inventors: Zenghe Liu, James Etzkorn
Filed Sep 18, 2013
Published Jul 10, 2014
Abstract:

Apparatus, systems and methods employing contact lenses having one or more sensor that sense an analyte in tear fluid and one or more recesses that collect the tear fluid. In some aspects, a contact lens includes a substrate that forms at least part of a body of the contact lens and a recess formed within the substrate configured to collect tear fluid when the contact lens is worn. The contact lens further includes at least one sensor disposed within the substrate configured to sense presence of an analyte in the collected tear fluid.

Referral Request System
Inventors: Joshua Logan Howard Brimdyr
Filed Aug 24, 2004
Granted May 22, 2012
Abstract:

A method for electronically managing patient referrals includes, in a network of interconnected computers, submitting a referral request by a first provider, accepting the referral request by a second provider, obtaining an insurance approval of the referral request, importing a medical record for a patient from a external system, exporting the imported medical record to the external system, updating the medical record with diagnostic information, and updating a status of the referral request.


Copyright © 2016 SEO by the Sea. This Feed is for personal non-commercial use only. If you are not reading this material in your news aggregator, the site you are looking at may be guilty of copyright infringement. Please contact SEO by the Sea, so we can take appropriate action immediately.
Plugin by Taragana

The post Google Assigns 148 Medical Patents to Verily Life Sciences appeared first on SEO by the Sea.





Source link

Share Button

Unlimited Gem apk Android Dragon City

In this video yo can know how to get unlimited Gems, Have fun!

 




Share Button

Image Search and Trends in Google Search Using FreeBase Entity Numbers

loading…

Google is organizing more and more things in its index based upon entities. I have a couple of examples for you that show how they are being used.

It’s possible that you may have missed a reference to Freebase Entities in a Google Research Blog post from 2013. I missed it myself. The post is
Improving Photo Search: A Step Across the Semantic Gap.

In the post, the author (Chuck Rosenberg) tells us how they improve imagine searching at Google by labeling images with entities, rather than text strings. The entities they used are entities that you would find at a source such as Freebase. He tells us that they use Freebase Machine ID numbers for those labels:

As in ImageNet, the classes were not text strings, but are entities, in our case we use Freebase entities which form the basis of the Knowledge Graph used in Google search. An entity is a way to uniquely identify something in a language-independent way. In English when we encounter the word “jaguar”, it is hard to determine if it represents the animal or the car manufacturer. Entities assign a unique ID to each, removing that ambiguity, in this case “/m/0449p” for the former and “/m/012×34” for the latter.

 

You can see those labels in the Machine ID numbers in the Freebase URLs for them, and in the Freebase entries.

Jaguar Car Entity

Freebase URL: http://www.freebase.com/m/012×34

Freebase Information for Jaguar Cars; note the Machine ID Number is similar to "/m/012x34"

Freebase Information for Jaguar Cars; note the Machine ID Number is similar to “/m/012×34”

Jaguar Cat Entity

Freebase URL: http://www.freebase.com/m/0449p

Freebase entry information for Jaguar Cats. Note the Machine ID number is similar to "/m/0449p"

Freebase entry information for Jaguar Cats. Note the Machine ID number is similar to “/m/0449p”

Freebase Entities and Google Trends

Last July, I was joined by Barbara Starr in a joint meetup presentation of the Lotico San Diego Semantic Web Meetup (Barbara and I are co-administrators) and an SEO San Diego Meetup presentation titled, Ranking in Google Since The Advent of The Knowledge Graph where Barbara pointed out something that she had noticed, that the Machine ID numbers for Entities in Freebase were showing up as HTML encoded URLs in Google Trends (see page 26 of the presentation).

For example, the Google Trend URL for IBM (Computer Hardware Company) is https://www.google.com/trends/explore#q=%2Fm%2F03sc8

The Freebase Machine ID number for IBM is in the URL: http://www.freebase.com/m/03sc8 (note that this from the Google Trend’s URL “%2Fm%2F03sc8” differs from this by being HTML encoded the same as in the Freebase URL – unencoded it is “/m/03sc8”)

The Freebase IBM Entry. Note that the Machine ID number is similar to “/m/03sc8”

The Freebase IBM Entry. Note that the Machine ID number is similar to “/m/03sc8”

The future of Google search appears to be based upon entities. So, Google is using Machine ID numbers as Entity labels in Reverse Image Searches and is also using Machine ID numbers to track Trends for Entities.


Copyright © 2016 SEO by the Sea. This Feed is for personal non-commercial use only. If you are not reading this material in your news aggregator, the site you are looking at may be guilty of copyright infringement. Please contact SEO by the Sea, so we can take appropriate action immediately.
Plugin by Taragana

The post Image Search and Trends in Google Search Using FreeBase Entity Numbers appeared first on SEO by the Sea.

Source link


Share Button

Google Cross Device Tracking and Audio Watermarks

Historical recording Aboriginal Corroboree, ,a href="https://www.flickr.com/photos/abcarchives/">Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Some rights reserved

Historical recording Aboriginal Corroboree, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Some rights reserved

Advertising on the Web is going through some changes because of how smart phones and tablets track visitors on a site, and how advertisements may broadcast high-frequency sounds that may act as audio watermarks that other devices can pick up upon. Imagine watching TV, and your TV broadcasts a high-frequency sound from an advertisement that your phone hears, and shares with the advertiser, who may then track whether you search for or purchase the product offered on a web site?

These are well described in the following Irish Examiner article, Future of Mobile: Advertisers and the quest for your data. If you read that and have some familiarity with how Google works, you may ask yourself if Google has followed such practices, or shown any sign of doing so.

 

In November, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) held a workshop on Cross Device Tracking, where they investigated practices that different companies were getting involved with, and they did some diving into the topic in a very informative way. There are a couple of videos linked to from that page that are worth watching if you want to become better informed on the topic.

I noticed a couple of recent patent filings at Google that were relevant to the workshop and to that article that fit into these changes, and are worth thinking about:

The first of these considers some of the different types of devices that are quickly growing in usage across the Web, such as smart phones and tablets, that don’t use browsers that save cookie files, and aren’t tracked from that type of approach as these Web users travel across the Web. Instead, these devices often use an Advertising ID, or other means of tracking behavior from one device and sharing that tracking with other devices.

Cross Device Notifications
Pub. No.: WO/2015/200051
Publication Date: 30.12.2015
International Filing Date: 16.06.2015
Inventors: Michael Koss Campbell, Justin Dewitt, Katie Jane Misserly, Dmitry Titov
Abstract:

Techniques for cross-device notifications are provided. An example method includes receiving a first indication of an event detected at a first device associated with a user account, determining one or more characteristics of the event based on the first indication of the event, detecting whether the determined characteristics match at least one selection criterion, automatically identifying a second device from one or more devices associated with the user account, and providing, if the determined characteristics match the at least one selection criterion, the first indication of the event to the second device associated with the user account, where the provided first indication of the event is displayed at the second device to allow management of the event at the first device from the second device.

This second approach, involving high-frequency sounds that you wouldn’t even hear, surprised me. The patent itself doesn’t talk about that kind of tracking itself. But, it does share information about what you’ve been subjected to (a particular advertisement) so that your future activities involving that advertisement might then be tracked.

Communicating Information Between Devices using Ultra High Frequency Audio
Pub. No.: WO/2015/195808
Publication Date: 23.12.2015
International Filing Date: 17.06.2015
Inventors: Shyam Narayan, Naveen Aerrabotu, Sreenivasulu Rayanki, Yun-Ming Wang

Abstract:

A client device encodes data into an audio signal and communicates the audio data to an additional client device, which decodes the data from the audio signal. The data is partitioned into characters, which are subsequently partitioned into a plurality of sub-characters. Each sub- character is encoded into a frequency, and multiple frequencies that encode sub-characters are combined by the client device to generate an audio signal. Frequencies encoding sub -characters may be above 16 kilohertz, so the sub-characters are transmitted using frequencies that are inaudible to humans. The audio signal is communicated to an additional client device, which decodes frequencies from the audio signal to sub-characters, which are then combined into characters by the additional client device to generate the data.

The future of advertising and tracking advertisements on the Web will involve multiple types of devices, and may also involve the use of high pitched frequencies that are outside of the range of normal hearing by human beings. Google now has patent filings that describe their possible use of this kind of technology.


Copyright © 2016 SEO by the Sea. This Feed is for personal non-commercial use only. If you are not reading this material in your news aggregator, the site you are looking at may be guilty of copyright infringement. Please contact SEO by the Sea, so we can take appropriate action immediately.
Plugin by Taragana

The post Google Cross Device Tracking and Audio Watermarks appeared first on SEO by the Sea.

Source link

Share Button